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Benjamin Bouillet, Thomas Gautier, Damien Denimal, Maxime Samson, David Masson, Jean Paul Pais de Barros, Guillaume Maquart, Marion Xolin, Alexandra Grosfeld, Héloïse Dalle, Bruno Vergès, Marthe Moldes, and Bruno Fève

Objective:

Glucocorticoids (GC) are associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity despite increased HDL-C concentration. HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux, a major anti-atherogenic property of HDL particles, is negatively associated with CVD risk. We aimed to determine whether HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux was influenced by GC.

Design:

Prospective, observational study.

Methods:

Lipid parameters, HDL composition, HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux, cholesteryl ester transfer protein, phospholipid transfer protein and lecithin cholesterol acyl-transferase (LCAT) activities were determined in ten patients with giant cell arteritis before and 3 months after GC introduction and in seven control subjects. HDL concentration and composition, HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux and LCAT activity were determined in GC-treated mice.

Results:

In patients, HDL-C concentration was higher after than before treatment GC-treatment (P = 0.002), while HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux was decreased (P = 0.008) and negatively associated with the proportion of cholesteryl ester in HDL (P = 0.04), independently of CRP. As well, in mice, HDL-C level was increased after GC exposure (P = 0.04) and HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux decreased (P = 0.04). GC-treated patients had higher cholesteryl ester content in HDL, higher HDL2-to-HDL3 ratio and higher LCAT activity than before treatment (P = 0.008, P = 0.02 and P = 0.004, respectively).

Conclusions:

We report, for the first time, that in patients with giant cell arteritis and mice treated with GC, HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux was impaired by GC besides an increased HDL-C level. This impaired HDL functionality, possibly related to HDL enrichment in cholesteryl ester, could contribute to the increased CVD risk observed in GC-treated patients. Further studies are needed in larger populations, to further decipher the effect of GC on HDL.

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Blandine Tramunt, Sarra Smati, Sandrine Coudol, Matthieu Wargny, Matthieu Pichelin, Béatrice Guyomarch, Abdallah Al-Salameh, Coralie Amadou, Sara Barraud, Édith Bigot, Lyse Bordier, Sophie Borot, Muriel Bourgeon, Olivier Bourron, Sybil Charriere, Nicolas Chevalier, Emmanuel Cosson, Bruno Fève, Anna Flaus-Furmaniuk, Pierre Fontaine, Amandine Galioot, Céline Gonfroy-Leymarie, Bruno Guerci, Sandrine Lablanche, Jean-Daniel Lalau, Etienne Larger, Adele Lasbleiz, Bruno Laviolle, Michel Marre, Marion Munch, Louis Potier, Gaëtan Prévost, Eric Renard, Yves Reznik, Dominique Seret-begue, Paul Sibilia, Philippe Thuillier, Bruno Vergès, Jean-Francois Gautier, Samy Hadjadj, Bertrand Cariou, Franck Mauvais-Jarvis, and Pierre Gourdy

Objective:

Male sex is a determinant of severe coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). We aimed to characterize sex differences in severe outcomes in adults with diabetes hospitalized for COVID-19.

Methods:

We performed a sex-stratified analysis of clinical and biological features and outcomes (i.e. invasive mechanical ventilation [IMV], death, intensive care unit [ICU] admission and home discharge at day 7 [D7] or day 28 [D28]) in 2,380 patients with diabetes hospitalized for COVID-19 and included in the nationwide CORONADO observational study (NCT04324736).

Results:

The study population was predominantly male (63.5%). After multiple adjustments, female sex was negatively associated with the primary outcome (IMV and/or death, OR 0.66 [0.49-0.88]), death (OR 0.49 [0.30-0.79]) and ICU admission (OR 0.57 [0.43-0.77]) at D7, but only with ICU admission (OR 0.58 [0.43-0.77]) at D28. Older age and a history of microvascular complications were predictors of death at D28 in both sexes, while chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was predictive of death in women only. At admission, CRP, AST and eGFR predicted death in both sexes. Lymphocytopenia was an independent predictor of death in women only, while thrombocytopenia and elevated plasma glucose concentration were predictors of death in men only.

Conclusions:

In patients with diabetes admitted for COVID-19, female sex was associated with lower incidence of early severe outcomes, but did not influence the overall in-hospital mortality, suggesting that diabetes mitigates the female protection from COVID-19 severity. Sex-associated biological determinants may be useful to optimize COVID-19 prevention and management in women and men.

Free access

Yaelle Elfassy, Alice Bongrani, Pierre Levy, Frantz Foissac, Soraya Fellahi, Céline Faure, Chloé McAvoy, Jacqueline Capeau, Joëlle Dupont, Bruno Fève, Rachel Levy, Jean-Philippe Bastard, and the Metasperme group

Objective

Adipokines could be a link between metabolic syndrome (MS) and infertility. While the association between circulating adipokines and fertility has been extensively studied in females, this relationship in males was less investigated, although some adipokines are detectable in seminal plasma (SP). The aim of this study was to determine adipokine levels in blood and SP and to assess the relationships between adipokines, MS and semen parameters in men from infertile couples.

Design

Male partners of infertile couples referred to four medical French centers were enrolled in years 2013–2016.

Methods

Subjects (n = 160) aged 18–45 years were assessed for anthropometric, biochemical, sperm, and circulating hormonal parameters. Leptin, adiponectin, resistin, chemerin, visfatin, and IL-6 were measured in serum and SP.

Results

Infertility duration was higher in men with than without MS. Adipokine concentrations were higher in blood than in SP, except for IL-6 and visfatin. The most striking result was the significant correlation observed between seminal IL-6 and spermatozoid concentration, progressive motility, and sperm vitality. Moreover, while men with MS exhibited an expected lower adiponectinemia, they displayed 2.1-fold higher adiponectin levels in SP than men without MS. Finally, logistic regression analysis showed that BMI, infertility duration, and adiponectin serum/SP ratio were independently associated with MS.

Conclusions

These results suggest an involvement of seminal adipokines to modulate fertility in men with MS and that seminal IL-6 could play a beneficial role on sperm functionality. Further mechanistic studies are necessary to investigate the precise roles of these adipokines in male reproduction.