The role of the incretin hormones in the pathophysiology of maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY) is unclear.
We studied the postprandial plasma responses of glucagon, incretin hormones (glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP)) and dipeptidyl-peptidase 4 (DPP4) enzymatic activity in patients with glucokinase (GCK) diabetes (MODY2) and hepatocyte nuclear factor 1α (HNF1A) diabetes (MODY3) as well as in matched healthy individuals (CTRLs).
Subjects and methods
Ten patients with MODY2 (mean age±s.e.m. 43±5 years; BMI 24±2 kg/m2; fasting plasma glucose (FPG) 7.1±0.3 mmol/l: HbA1c 6.6±0.2%), ten patients with MODY3 (age 31±3 years; BMI 24±1 kg/m2; FPG 8.9±0.8 mmol/l; HbA1c 7.0±0.3%) and ten CTRLs (age 40±5 years; BMI 24±1 kg/m2; FPG 5.1±0.1 mmol/l; HbA1c 5.3±0.1%) were examined with a liquid test meal.
All of the groups exhibited similar baseline values of glucagon (MODY2: 7±1 pmol/l; MODY3: 6±1 pmol/l; CTRLs: 8±2 pmol/l, P=0.787), but patients with MODY3 exhibited postprandial hyperglucagonaemia (area under the curve (AUC) 838±108 min×pmol/l) as compared to CTRLs (182±176 min×pmol/l, P=0.005) and tended to have a greater response than did patients with MODY2 (410±154 min×pmol/l, P=0.063). Similar peak concentrations and AUCs for plasma GIP and plasma GLP1 were observed across the groups. Increased fasting DPP4 activity was seen in patients with MODY3 (17.7±1.2 mU/ml) vs CTRLs (13.6±0.8 mU/ml, P=0.011), but the amount of activity was similar to that in patients with MODY2 (15.0±0.7 mU/ml, P=0.133).
The pathophysiology of MODY3 includes exaggerated postprandial glucagon responses and increased fasting DPP4 enzymatic activity but normal postprandial incretin responses both in patients with MODY2 and in patients with MODY3.