During the past years, targeted therapies for cancer have been developed using drugs that have significant metabolic consequences. Among them, the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors and, to a much lesser extent, the tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are involved. mTOR plays a key role in the regulation of cell growth as well as lipid and glucose metabolism. Treatment with mTOR inhibitors is associated with a significant increase in plasma triglycerides and LDL cholesterol. mTOR inhibitors seem to increase plasma triglycerides by reducing the activity of the lipoprotein lipase which is in charge of the catabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. The increase in LDL cholesterol observed with mTOR inhibitors seems to be due to a decrease in LDL catabolism secondary to a reduction of LDL receptor expression. In addition, treatment with mTOR inhibitors is associated with a high incidence of hyperglycemia, ranging from 13 to 50% in the clinical trials. The mechanisms responsible for hyperglycemia with new onset diabetes are not clear, but are likely due to the combination of impaired insulin secretion and insulin resistance. TKIs do not induce hyperlipidemia but alter glucose homeostasis. Treatment with TKIs may be associated either with hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia. The molecular mechanism by which TKIs control glucose homeostasis remains unknown. Owing to the metabolic consequences of these agents used as targeted anti-cancer therapies, a specific and personalized follow-up of blood glucose and lipids is recommended when using mTOR inhibitors and of blood glucose when using TKIs.
Bruno Vergès, Thomas Walter and Bertrand Cariou
Isabelle Benoit, Delphine Drui, Lucy Chaillous, Benoît Dupas, Jean-François Mosnier, Bernard Charbonnel and Bertrand Cariou
Familial glucocorticoid deficiency (FGD) is a rare autosomal recessive ACTH-resistance syndrome characterized by glucocorticoid deficiency in the absence of mineralocorticoid deficiency. Here, we report the case of a young woman with a corticotroph pituitary adenoma as the initial presentation of FGD.
A 15-year-old girl was referred to our institution for a 16 mm pituitary adenoma associated with glucocorticoid deficiency. Clinical and biological features were evocative of FGD. DNA sequencing did not identify mutations in either the melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2R) or the MC2R accessory protein genes, indicating type 3 FGD. Despite adequate glucocorticoid replacement, plasma ACTH levels remained increased and pituitary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a progression of the tumour size resulting in optic chiasm compression with intra-tumoural haemorrhaging. When the patient was 26 years old, it was decided that she would undergo transsphenoidal surgery. The histomorphological analysis identified a well-individualized pituitary adenoma immunoreactive for ACTH. The proband's sister also exhibited type 3 FGD associated with pituitary hyperplasia upon MRI.
This case highlights the relationship between FGD and hyperplasia of ACTH-producing cells, potentially leading to histologically proven pituitary corticotroph adenomas. This observation raises the question of the pituitary MRI's significance in the follow-up of FGD.
Claire Blanchard, Muriel Mathonnet, Frédéric Sebag, Cécile Caillard, Antoine Hamy, Christelle Volteau, Marie-Françoise Heymann, Vincent Wyart, Delphine Drui, Malanie Roy, Bertrand Cariou, Françoise Archambeaud, Patrice Rodien, Jean-François Henry, Rasa Zarnegar, Jean-Benoît Hardouin and Eric Mirallié
Objective and background
Most primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) patients do not conform to the guidelines for parathyroidectomy established by an international panel of specialists and have a mild pHPT. This group is typically defined as ‘asymptomatic’. The primary aim of this study was to determine symptom improvement in this ‘asymptomatic’ group after parathyroidectomy. Secondly, we aimed to create a preoperative clinical score predicting postoperative symptom resolution.
A prospective nonrandomized study included patients with mild pHPT.
A questionnaire (22 items) was given to ‘asymptomatic’ patients preoperatively and at 3, 6, and 12 postoperative months. A logistic regression was performed to create a preoperative clinical score.
One hundred and sixteen patients were included. Postoperatively, HPT was resolved in 98% of patients. Twelve of 22 nonspecific symptoms were improved at 1 year. Subgroups analysis showed a greater improvement in patients <70 years and those with a serum calcium level ≥2.6 mmol/l preoperatively. A clinical score, based on age and five symptoms, was established to predict the clinical improvement after surgery in mild pHPT patients with a positive predictive value of 81%.
Patients with asymptomatic pHPT have clinical improvement of their symptoms postoperatively even after 1 year. Younger patients and those with higher preoperative calcium levels show the best improvement.
Gudmundur Johannsson, Ulla Feldt-Rasmussen, Ida Holme Håkonsson, Henrik Biering, Patrice Rodien, Shigeyuki Tahara, Andrew Toogood, Michael Højby Rasmussen and the REAL 2 Study Group
Somapacitan is a reversible albumin-binding growth hormone (GH) derivative, developed for once-weekly administration. This study aimed to evaluate the safety of once-weekly somapacitan vs once-daily Norditropin®. Local tolerability and treatment satisfaction were also assessed.
26-week randomized, controlled phase 3 safety and tolerability trial in six countries (Nbib2382939).
Male or female patients aged 18–79 years with adult GH deficiency (AGHD), treated with once-daily GH for ≥6 months, were randomized to once-weekly somapacitan (n = 61) or once-daily Norditropin (n = 31) administered subcutaneously by pen. Both treatments were dose titrated for 8 weeks to achieve insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) standard deviation score (SDS) levels within the normal range, and then administered at a fixed dose. Outcome measures were adverse events (AEs), including injection site reactions; occurrence of anti-somapacitan/anti-GH antibodies and change in treatment satisfaction, assessed using the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication-9 (TSQM-9).
Mean IGF-I SDS remained between 0 and 2 SDS throughout the trial in both groups. AEs were mostly mild or moderate and transient in nature. The most common AEs were nasopharyngitis, headache and fatigue in both groups. More than 1500 somapacitan injections were administered and no clinically significant injection site reactions were reported. No anti-somapacitan or anti-GH antibodies were detected. The TSQM-9 score for convenience increased significantly more with somapacitan vs Norditropin (P = 0.0171).
In this 26-week trial in patients with AGHD, somapacitan was well tolerated and no safety issues were identified. Once-weekly somapacitan was reported to be more convenient than once-daily Norditropin.