The calcium-sensing receptor (CASR) is the main calcium sensor in the maintenance of calcium metabolism. Mutations of the CASR, the G protein alpha 11 (GNA11) and the adaptor-related protein complex 2 sigma 1 subunit (AP2S1) genes can shift the set point for calcium sensing causing hyper- or hypo-calcemic disorders. Therapeutic concepts for these rare diseases range from general therapies of hyper- and hypo-calcemic conditions to more pathophysiology oriented approaches such as parathyroid hormone (PTH) substitution and allosteric CASR modulators. Cinacalcet is a calcimimetic that enhances receptor function and has gained approval for the treatment of hyperparathyroidism. Calcilytics in turn attenuate CASR activity and are currently under investigation for the treatment of various diseases. We conducted a literature search for reports about treatment of patients harboring inactivating or activating CASR, GNA11 or AP2S1 mutants and about in vitro effects of allosteric CASR modulators on mutated CASR. The therapeutic concepts for patients with familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia (FHH), neonatal hyperparathyroidism (NHPT), neonatal severe hyperparathyroidism (NSHPT) and autosomal dominant hypocalcemia (ADH) are reviewed. FHH is usually benign, but symptomatic patients benefit from cinacalcet. In NSHPT patients pamidronate effectively lowers serum calcium, but most patients require parathyroidectomy. In some patients cinacalcet can obviate the need for surgery, particularly in heterozygous NHPT. Symptomatic ADH patients respond to vitamin D and calcium supplementation but this may increase calciuria and renal complications. PTH treatment can reduce relative hypercalciuria. None of the currently available therapies for ADH, however, prevent tissue calcifications and complications, which may become possible with calcilytics that correct the underlying pathophysiologic defect.
Bernhard Mayr, Dirk Schnabel, Helmuth-Günther Dörr and Christof Schöfl
Flavius Zoicas, Michael Droste, Bernhard Mayr, Michael Buchfelder and Christof Schöfl
Patients with hypothalamic pathology often develop morbid obesity, causing severe metabolic alterations resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogues improve glycaemic control in type 2 diabetic patients and cause weight loss in obese patients by yet unknown mechanisms. Here we tested whether GLP-1 analogues were also effective in the treatment of obesity and associated metabolic alterations in patients with hypothalamic disease.
Nine patients (eight with type 2 diabetes mellitus) with moderate to severe hypothalamic obesity were treated with GLP-1 analogues for up to 51 months. Body weight, homeostasis model assessment - insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), HbA1c and lipids were assessed.
Eight patients experienced substantial weight loss (−13.1±5.1 kg (range −9 to −22)). Insulin resistance (HOMA-IR −3.2±3.5 (range −9.1 to 0.8)) and HbA1c values (−1.3±1.4% (range −4.5 to 0.0)) improved under treatment (24.3±18.9 months (range 6 to 51)). Five patients reported increased satiation in response to the treatment. Two of the eight patients complained about nausea and vomiting and one of them abandoned therapy because of sustained gastrointestinal discomfort after 6 months. One patient suffered from intolerable nausea and vomiting and discontinued treatment within 2 weeks.
GLP-1 analogues can cause substantial and sustained weight loss in obese patients with hypothalamic disease. This offers a new approach for medical treatment of moderate to severe hypothalamic obesity and associated metabolic alterations.
Bernhard Mayr, Rolf Buslei, Marily Theodoropoulou, Günter K Stalla, Michael Buchfelder and Christof Schöfl
GH-producing pituitary adenomas display two distinct morphological patterns of cytoplasmic GH-containing secretory granules, namely the densely and sparsely granulated somatotroph adenoma subtype. It is unknown whether these morphological variants reflect distinct pathophysiological entities at the molecular level.
In 28 GH-producing adenoma tissues from a consecutive set of patients undergoing pituitary surgery for acromegaly, we studied the GH granulation pattern, the expression of somatostatin receptor subtypes (SSTR) as well as the calcium, cAMP and ZAC1 pathways in primary adenoma cell cultures.
The expression of GSP oncogene was similar between densely and sparsely granulated somatotroph adenoma cells. There were no differences in the calcium, cAMP and ZAC1 pathways as well as in their regulation by SSTR agonists. SSTR2 was exclusively expressed in densely but not in sparsely granulated tumours (membrane expression 86 vs 0%; cytoplasmic expression 67 vs 0%). By contrast, expression of SSTR5 was only found in sparsely but not in densely granulated somatotroph adenomas (membrane expression 29 vs 0%; cytoplasmic expression 57 vs 0%).
Our results indicate that different granulation patterns in GH-producing adenomas do not reflect differences in pathways and factors pivotal for somatotroph differentiation and function. In vitro, the vast majority of both densely and sparsely granulated tumour cells were responsive to SSTR activation at the molecular level. Sparsely granulated adenomas lacking SSTR2, but expressing SSTR5, might be responsive to novel SSTR agonists with increased affinity to SSTR5.
Christof Schöfl, Martin Grussendorf, Jürgen Honegger, Anke Tönjes, Daniel Thyroke-Gronostay, Bernhard Mayr, Jochen Schopohl and the participants of the German Acromegaly Register
Disease control is a prime target in acromegaly treatment. This should be achievable in the vast majority of patients by available treatment options. For unknown reasons, however, a significant number of patients do not achieve disease control.
To investigate reasons for failure to achieve disease control in long-standing acromegaly.
Design and methods
Survey based on the German Acromegaly Registry database (1755 patients in 57 centres). Questionnaires were sent to 47 centres treating 178 patients with elevated disease markers (IGF1 and GH) at the last documented database visit out of 1528 patients with a diagnosis dated back ≥2 years. Thirty-three centres returned anonymised information for 120 patients (recall rate 67.4%).
Median age of the 120 patients (58 females) was 57 years (range 17–84). Ninety-four patients had at least one operation, 29 had received radiotherapy and 71 had been previously treated medically. Comorbidities were reported in 67 patients. In 61 patients, disease activity had been controlled since the last documented database visit, while 59 patients still had biochemically active disease. Reasons were patients' denial to escalate therapy (23.3%), non-compliance (20.6%), fluctuating insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and growth hormone (GH) levels with normal values at previous visits (23.3%) and modifications in pharmacotherapy (15.1%). Therapy resistance (9.6%), drug side effects (4.1%) and economic considerations (4.1%) were rare reasons.
Main reasons for long-standing active acromegaly were patients' lack of motivation to agree to therapeutic recommendations and non-compliance with medical therapy. Development of patient education programmes could improve long-term control and thus prognosis of acromegalic patients.
Christof Schöfl, Holger Franz, Martin Grussendorf, Jürgen Honegger, Cornelia Jaursch-Hancke, Bernhard Mayr, Jochen Schopohl and the participants of the German Acromegaly Register
Acromegaly is a rare disease with significant morbidity and increased mortality. Epidemiological data about therapeutic outcome under ‘real life’ conditions are scarce.
To describe biochemical long-term outcome of acromegaly patients in Germany.
Design and methods
Retrospective data analysis from 1344 patients followed in 42 centers of the German Acromegaly Register. Patients' data were collected 8.6 (range 0–52.6) years after diagnosis. Controlled disease was defined by an IGF1 within the center-specific reference range.
Nine hundred and seventeen patients showed a normalized IGF1 (157 (range 25–443) ng/ml). In patients with a diagnosis dated back >2 years (n=1013), IGF1 was normalized in 76.9%. Of the patients, 19.5% had an elevated IGF1 and a random GH ≥1 ng/ml, 89% of the patients had at least one surgical intervention, 22% underwent radiotherapy, and 43% received medical treatment. After surgery 38.8% of the patients were controlled without any further therapy. The control rates were higher in surgical centers with a higher caseload (P=0.034). Of the patients with adjunctive radiotherapy 34.8% had a normal IGF1 8.86 (0–44.9) years post irradiation, 65.2% of the medically treated patients were controlled, and 47.2% of the patients with an elevated IGF1 received no medical therapy.
The majority of acromegaly patients were controlled according to their IGF1 status. Long-term outcome could be improved by exploiting medical treatment options especially in patients who are not controlled by surgery and/or radiotherapy.
Markus Glaudo, Saskia Letz, Marcus Quinkler, Ulrich Bogner, Ulf Elbelt, Christian J Strasburger, Dirk Schnabel, Erwin Lankes, Sandra Scheel, Joachim Feldkamp, Christine Haag, Egbert Schulze, Karin Frank-Raue, Friedhelm Raue, Bernhard Mayr and Christof Schöfl
Homozygous inactivating mutations of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) lead to neonatal severe hyperparathyroidism (NSHPT), whereas heterozygous inactivating mutations result in familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia (FHH). It is unknown why in some cases heterozygous CaSR mutations cause neonatal hyperparathyroidism (NHPT) clinically similar to NSHPT but with only moderately elevated serum calcium.
A literature survey was conducted to identify patients with heterozygous CaSR mutations and NHPT. The common NHPT CaSR mutants R185Q and R227L were compared with 15 mutants causing only FHH in the heterozygous state. We studied in vitro calcium signaling including the functional consequences of co-expression of mutant and wild-type (wt) CaSR, patients’ phenotype, age of disease manifestation and mode of inheritance.
All inactivating CaSR mutants impaired calcium signaling of wt-CaSR regardless of the patients’ clinical phenotype. The absolute intracellular calcium signaling response to physiologic extracellular calcium concentrations in vitro showed a high correlation with patients’ serum calcium concentrations in vivo, which is similar in NHPT and FHH patients with the same genotype. Pedigrees of FHH families revealed that paternal inheritance per se does not necessarily lead to NHPT but may only cause FHH.
There is a significant correlation between in vitro functional impairment of the CaSR at physiologic calcium concentrations and the severity of alterations in calcium homeostasis in patients. Whether a particular genotype leads to NHPT or FHH appears to depend on additional predisposing genetic or environmental factors. An individual therapeutic approach appears to be warranted for NHPT patients.