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  • Author: Berenice Bilharinho Mendonca x
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Luiz Roberto Salgado, Maria Candida B Villares Fragoso, Mirta Knoepfelmacher, Marcio Carlos Machado, Sorahia Domenice, Maria Adelaide Albergaria Pereira, and Berenice Bilharinho de Mendonça

Objective: Ectopic ACTH syndrome (EAS) occurs in about 5–10% of all patients with ACTH-dependent hypercortisolism with most of them caused by intrathoracic neoplasms. It may be associated with overt malignancies or with occult and indolent tumors. We assessed the accuracy of dynamic tests, inferior petrosal sinus sampling (IPSS) using desmopressin, and imaging in the work-up diagnosis of EAS.

Design and subjects: Tumor markers, imaging, and outcome data from 25 patients (13F/12M) aged 18–72 years. High dexamethasone suppression test (HDDST), desmopressin test, GHRP-6 test, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) test, IPSS, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and 111In-pentetreotide scintigraphy were revised.

Results: In 5 out of 20 patients HDDST was positive. In 13 patients who underwent desmopressin test, ACTH- and cortisol-positive responses were seen in six and five patients respectively. GHRP-6 test was positive in two out of three cases. Two patients underwent CRH test with negative response. In the seven patients submitted to IPSS using desmopressin in six of them, none had ACTH gradients. CT was positive in 15 out of 21 patients and MRI in 8 out of 17 cases. 111In-pentetreotide scintigraphy was positive in three out of five patients. Fourteen patients had intrathoracic tumors, five had pheochromocytomas, three had pancreatic tumors, one had a glomic tumor, and had three occult tumors. Six out of 11 patients with metastasis died and 3 others without metastasis died.

Conclusions: IPSS with desmopressin was helpful for differential diagnosis. Patients initially harboring occult carcinoids may also exhibit severe hypercortisolism and those harboring tymic carcinoids had poor prognoses when compared with bronchial carcinoids and pheocromocytomas.

Free access

Lorena Guimaraes Lima Amato, Luciana Ribeiro Montenegro, Antonio Marcondes Lerario, Alexander Augusto Lima Jorge, Gil Guerra Junior, Caroline Schnoll, Alessandra Covallero Renck, Ericka Barbosa Trarbach, Elaine Maria Frade Costa, Berenice Bilharinho Mendonca, Ana Claudia Latronico, and Leticia Ferreira Gontijo Silveira


Congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (CHH) is a rare condition caused by GnRH deficiency. Several genes have been associated with the pathogenesis of CHH, but most cases still remain without a molecular diagnosis. The advent of next-generation sequencing (NGS) has allowed the simultaneous genotyping of several regions, faster, making possible the extension of the genetic knowledge of CHH.


Genetic characterization of a large cohort of Brazilian CHH patients.

Design and patients

A cohort of 130 unrelated patients (91 males, 39 females) with CHH (75 normosmic CHH, 55 Kallmann syndrome) was studied using a panel containing 36 CHH-associated genes.


Potential pathogenic or probably pathogenic variants were identified in 43 (33%) CHH patients. The genes ANOS1, FGFR1 and GNRHR were the most frequently affected. A novel homozygous splice site mutation was identified in the GNRH1 gene and a deletion of the entire coding sequence was identified in SOX10. Deleterious variants in the IGSF10 gene were identified in two patients with reversible normosmic CHH. Notably, 6.9% of the patients had rare variants in more than one gene. Rare variants were also identified in SPRY4, IL17RD, FGF17, IGSF1 and FLRT3 genes.


This is a large study of the molecular genetics of CHH providing new genetic findings for this complex and heterogeneous genetic condition. NGS has been shown to be a fast, reliable and effective tool in the molecular diagnosis of congenital CHH and being able to targeting clinical genetic testing in the future.

Open access

Irina Bacila, Nicole Freeman, Eleni Daniel, Marija Sandrk, Jillian Bryce, Salma Rashid Ali, Zehra Yavas Abalı, Navoda Atapattu, Tania A Bachega, Antonio Balsamo, Niels Birkebæk, Oliver Blankenstein, Walter Bonfig, Martine Cools, Eduardo Correa Costa, Feyza Darendeliler, Silvia Einaudi, Heba Hassan Elsedfy, Martijn Finken, Evelien Gevers, Hedi L Claahsen-van der Grinten, Tulay Guran, Ayla Güven, Sabine E. Hannema, Claire E Higham, Violeta Iotova, Hetty J. van der Kamp, Marta Korbonits, Ruth E Krone, Corina Lichiardopol, Andrea Luczay, Berenice Bilharinho Mendonca, Tatjana Milenkovic, Mirela C Miranda, Klaus Mohnike, Uta Neumann, Rita Ortolano, Sukran Poyrazoglu, Ajay Thankamony, Jeremy W Tomlinson, Ana Vieites, Liat de Vries, S Faisal Ahmed, Richard J Ross, and Nils P Krone

Objective: Despite published guidelines no unified approach to hormone replacement in congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) exists. We aimed to explore geographical and temporal variations in the treatment with glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids in CAH.

Design: This retrospective multi-center study, including 31 centers (16 countries), analyzed data from the International-CAH Registry.

Methods: Data was collected from 461 patients aged 0-18 years with classic 21-hydroxylase deficiency (54.9% females) under follow-up between 1982 – 2018. Type, dose and timing of glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid replacement was analyzed from 4174 patient visits.

Results: The most frequently used glucocorticoid was hydrocortisone (87.6%). Overall, there were significant differences between age groups with regards to daily hydrocortisone-equivalent dose for body surface, with the lowest dose (median with interquartile range) of 12.0 (10.0 – 14.5) mg/ m2/ day at age 1 - 8 years and the highest dose of 14.0 (11.6 - 17.4) mg/ m2/ day at age 12-18 years. Glucocorticoid doses decreased after 2010 in patients 0-8 years (p<0.001) and remained unchanged in patients aged 8-18 years. Fludrocortisone was used in 92% of patients, with relative doses decreasing with age. A wide variation was observed among countries with regards to all aspects of steroid hormone replacement.

Conclusions: Data from the I-CAH Registry suggests international variations in hormone replacement therapy, with a tendency to treatment with high doses in children.