NN703 is a novel orally active GH secretagogue (GHS) derived from ipamorelin. NN703 stimulates GH release from rat pituitary cells in a dose-dependent manner with a potency and efficacy similar to that of GHRP-6. The effect is inhibited by known GHS antagonists, but not by a GH-releasing hormone antagonist. Binding of (35)S-MK677 to the human type 1A GHS receptor (GHS-R 1A) stably expressed on BHK cells was inhibited by GHRP-6 and MK677 as expected. NN703 was also able to inhibit the binding of (35)S-MK677. However, the observed K(i) value was lower than expected, as based on the observed potencies regarding GH release from rat pituitary cells. Similarly, the effect of NN703 on the GHS-R 1A-induced inositol phosphate turnover in these cells showed a lower potency, when compared with GHRP-6 and MK677, than that observed in rat pituitary cells. The effect of i.v. administration of NN703 on GH and cortisol release was studied in swine. The potency and efficacy of NN703 on GH release were determined to be 155+/-23 nmol/kg and 91+/-7 ng GH/ml plasma respectively. A 50% increase of cortisol, compared with basal levels, was observed for all the tested doses of NN703, but no dose-dependency was shown. The effect of NN703 on GH release after i. v. and oral dosing in beagle dogs was studied. NN703 dose-dependently increased the GH release after oral administration. At the highest dose (20 micromol/kg), a 35-fold increase in peak GH concentration was observed (49.5+/-17.8 ng/ml, mean+/-s.e.m.). After a single i.v. dose of 1 micromol/kg the peak GH plasma concentration was elevated to 38.5+/-19.6 ng/ml (mean+/-s.e.m.) approximately 30 min after dosing and returned to basal level after 360 min. The oral bioavailability was 30%. The plasma half-life of NN703 was 4.1+/-0.4 h. A long-term biological effect of NN703 was demonstrated in a rat study, where the body weight gain was measured during a 14-day once daily oral challenge with 100 micromol/kg. The body weight gain was significantly increased after 14 days as compared with a vehicle-treated group. In summary, we here describe an orally active and GH specific secretagogue, NN703. This compound acts through a similar mechanism as GHRP-6, but has a different receptor pharmacology. NN703 induced GH release in both swine and dogs after i.v. and/or p.o. administration, had a high degree of GH specificity in swine and significantly increased the body weight gain in rats.
BS Hansen, K Raun, KK Nielsen, PB Johansen, TK Hansen, B Peschke, J Lau, PH Andersen and M Ankersen
K Raun, BS Hansen, NL Johansen, H Thogersen, K Madsen, M Ankersen and PH Andersen
The development and pharmacology of a new potent growth hormone (GH) secretagogue, ipamorelin, is described. Ipamorelin is a pentapeptide (Aib-His-D-2-Nal-D-Phe-Lys-NH2), which displays high GH releasing potency and efficacy in vitro and in vivo. As an outcome of a major chemistry programme, ipamorelin was identified within a series of compounds lacking the central dipeptide Ala-Trp of growth hormone-releasing peptide (GHRP)-1. In vitro, ipamorelin released GH from primary rat pituitary cells with a potency and efficacy similar to GHRP-6 (ECs) = 1.3+/-0.4nmol/l and Emax = 85+/-5% vs 2.2+/-0.3nmol/l and 100%). A pharmacological profiling using GHRP and growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) antagonists clearly demonstrated that ipamorelin, like GHRP-6, stimulates GH release via a GHRP-like receptor. In pentobarbital anaesthetised rats, ipamorelin released GH with a potency and efficacy comparable to GHRP-6 (ED50 = 80+/-42nmol/kg and Emax = 1545+/-250ng GH/ml vs 115+/-36nmol/kg and 1167+/-120ng GH/ml). In conscious swine, ipamorelin released GH with an ED50 = 2.3+/-0.03 nmol/kg and an Emax = 65+/-0.2 ng GH/ml plasma. Again, this was very similar to GHRP-6 (ED50 = 3.9+/-1.4 nmol/kg and Emax = 74+/-7ng GH/ml plasma). GHRP-2 displayed higher potency but lower efficacy (ED50 = 0.6 nmol/kg and Emax = 56+/-6 ng GH/ml plasma). The specificity for GH release was studied in swine. None of the GH secretagogues tested affected FSH, LH, PRL or TSH plasma levels. Administration of both GHRP-6 and GHRP-2 resulted in increased plasma levels of ACTH and cortisol. Very surprisingly, ipamorelin did not release ACTH or cortisol in levels significantly different from those observed following GHRH stimulation. This lack of effect on ACTH and cortisol plasma levels was evident even at doses more than 200-fold higher than the ED50 for GH release. In conclusion, ipamorelin is the first GHRP-receptor agonist with a selectivity for GH release similar to that displayed by GHRH. The specificity of ipamorelin makes this compound a very interesting candidate for future clinical development.
J Gromada, K Bokvist, M Hoy, HL Olsen, P Lindstrom, BS Hansen, CF Gotfredsen, P Rorsman and MK Thomsen
OBJECTIVE: GH causes insulin resistance, impairs glycemic control and increases the risk of vascular diabetic complications. Sulphonylureas stimulate GH secretion and this study was undertaken to investigate the possible stimulatory effect of repaglinide and nateglinide, two novel oral glucose regulators, on critical steps of the stimulus-secretion coupling in single rat somatotrophs. METHODS: Patch-clamp techniques were used to record whole-cell ATP-sensitive K(+) (K(ATP)) and delayed outward K(+) currents, membrane potential and Ca(2+)-dependent exocytosis. GH release was measured from perifused rat somatotrophs. RESULTS: Both nateglinide and repaglinide dose-dependently suppressed K(ATP) channel activity with half-maximal inhibition being observed at 413 nM and 13 nM respectively. Both compounds induced action potential firing in the somatotrophs irrespective of whether GH-releasing hormone was present or not. The stimulation of electrical activity by nateglinide, but not repaglinide, was associated with an increased mean duration of the action potentials. The latter effect correlated with a reduction of the delayed outward K(+) current, which accounts for action potential repolarization. The latter effect had a K(d) of 19 microM but was limited to 38% inhibition. When applied at concentrations similar to those required to block K(ATP) channels, nateglinide in addition potentiated Ca(2+)-evoked exocytosis 3.3-fold (K(d)=3 microM) and stimulated GH release 4.5-fold. The latter effect was not shared by repaglinide. The stimulation of exocytosis by nateglinide was mimicked by cAMP and antagonized by the protein kinase A inhibitor Rp-cAMPS. CONCLUSION: Nateglinide stimulates GH release by inhibition of plasma membrane K(+) channels, elevation of cytoplasmic cAMP levels and stimulation of Ca(2+)-dependent exocytosis. By contrast, the effect of repaglinide was confined to inhibition of the K(ATP) channels.