Sclerostin is an osteocyte-derived inhibitor of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, which acts as a negative regulator of bone formation. Published data on sclerostin levels in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) are few.
To evaluate gender differences in sclerostin serum levels and the association among sclerostin, bone mass, bone metabolism, and the main clinical characteristics of subjects with T1DM.
Design and methods
A total of 69 patients with T1DM (mean age, 33.7±8.1; 49% males) were enrolled in this cross-sectional study in a clinical research center. Bone mineral density was measured by phalangeal quantitative ultrasound (QUS); bone turnover markers (urinary pyridinoline, deoxypyridinoline (D-PYR), and urine hydroxyproline (OH-PRO) to evaluate bone resorption; serum bone alkaline phosphatase and BGP to evaluate bone formation) and sclerostin were assessed.
D-PYR and sclerostin were significantly higher in women when compared with men (P=0.04). A disease duration >15 years was associated with higher sclerostin levels (P=0.03). Bone turnover markers and QUS parameters were not correlated with sclerostin. A significant negative correlation was observed among QUS parameters, BMI, and OH-PRO. Sclerostin serum levels were correlated with homocysteine (r=−0.34, P=0.005) and vitamin B12 (r=−0.31, P=0.02). Generalized linear model showed that macroangiopathy was the only predictor of sclerostin serum levels (β=−11.8, 95% CI from −21.9 to −1.7; P=0.02).
Our data demonstrate that women with T1DM exhibit higher sclerostin levels than men and that circulating sclerostin is not associated with bone turnover markers and phalangeal QUS measurements. Macroangiopathy was associated with sclerostin levels.