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Merel M Ruissen, Anne Linde Mak, Ulrich Beuers, Maarten E Tushuizen and Adriaan G Holleboom

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a growing health problem with a global prevalence of over 25% and prevalence rates of over 60% in high-risk populations. It is considered the hepatic component of the metabolic syndrome and is associated with an increased risk of the development of various liver-associated and cardiometabolic complications. Given the complexity of NAFLD and associated comorbidities and complications, treatment requires interventions from a variety of different healthcare specialties. However, many clinicians are currently insufficiently aware of the potential harm and severity of NAFLD and associated comorbidities, complications and the steps that should be taken when NAFLD is suspected. Recognizing which patients suffer from non-progressive simple steatosis, metabolically active NASH with high risk of developing cardiovascular disease and which patients have a high risk of developing cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma is important. Unfortunately, this can be difficult and guidelines towards the optimal diagnostic and therapeutic approach are ambivalent. Here we review the pathogenesis, diagnostics and treatment of NAFLD and discuss how multidisciplinary care path development could move forward.