Aart Jan van der Lely, Peter Jönsson, Patrick Wilton, Ann-Charlotte Åkerblad, José Cara and Ezio Ghigo
To investigate the characteristics of patients who need more or less pegvisomant (PEGV) to normalize serum IGF-I.
ACROSTUDY is a global noninterventional safety surveillance study of long-term treatment outcomes in patients treated with PEGV. As of June, 2014, ACROSTUDY included data on 2016 patients. All patients treated for at least 6weeks at a dose above 30mg/day and who had two consecutive normal serum IGF-I values were included in the ‘high’-dose group (H; n=56; mean daily dose 44±12.5; median dose 40, 35–60 (10–90%)). Patients with two consecutive normal IGF-I values and who never received a PEGV dose above 10mg/day were included in the ‘low’-dose group (L; n=368; mean daily dose 7.5±2.5; median dose 8.6, 4.3–10 (10–90%)).
Patients in the H group were significantly younger (median 47 vs 52years) and had a significantly higher BMI (median 31.8 vs 26.5kg/m2). They had more diabetes (55% vs 21%), sleep apnea (25% vs 14 %) and more hypertension (61% vs 43%). The incidence of (serious) adverse events was low and was not different between the groups.
Patients who need more PEGV to normalize IGF-I have more aggressive disease, as they are younger, have higher baseline IGF-I levels, more hypertension, more sleep apnea and diabetes and are more overweight. A better understanding of this dose-efficacy relationship of PEGV might avoid inappropriate dosing and prevent serum IGF-I levels from remaining unnecessarily uncontrolled.
Oskar Ragnarsson, Anders F Mattsson, John P Monson, Helena Filipsson Nyström, Ann-Charlotte Åkerblad, Maria Kołtowska-Häggström and Gudmundur Johannsson
Quality of life (QoL) is impaired in hypopituitary patients and patients with primary adrenal insufficiency. The aim of this study was to analyse the impact of glucocorticoid (GC) replacement on QoL. The main hypothesis was that ACTH-insufficient patients experience a dose-dependent deterioration in QoL.
Design, patients and methods
This was a retrospective analysis of data from KIMS (Pfizer International Metabolic Database). Data from 2737 adult GH-deficient (GHD) hypopituitary patients were eligible for analysis. Thirty-six per cent were ACTH sufficient and 64% ACTH insufficient receiving a mean±s.d. hydrocortisone equivalent (HCeq) dose of 22.3±8.7 mg (median 20.0). QoL at baseline and 1 year after commencement of GH replacement was assessed by the QoL-assessment of GHD in adults.
At baseline, no significant difference in QoL was observed between ACTH-sufficient and -insufficient patients. Increasing HCeq dose was associated with worse QoL. Patients on HCeq ≤10 mg had the best and patients receiving ≥25 mg demonstrated the poorest QoL. At 1 year of GH replacement, the improvement in QoL did not differ between ACTH-sufficient and -insufficient patients, and no association was observed between HCeq dose and QoL improvement.
Adult hypopituitary patients with untreated GHD receiving GC replacement have similar QoL as ACTH-sufficient patients. Among ACTH-insufficient patients, there is a dose-dependent association between increasing dose and impaired QoL. This association may be explained by supraphysiological GC exposure although it remains plausible that clinicians may have increased GC doses in order to address otherwise unexplained QoL deficits.
Rolf C Gaillard, Anders F Mattsson, Ann-Charlotte Åkerblad, Bengt-Åke Bengtsson, José Cara, Ulla Feldt-Rasmussen, Maria Kołtowska-Häggström, John P Monson, Bernhard Saller, Patrick Wilton and Roger Abs
Hypopituitarism is associated with an increased mortality rate but the reasons underlying this have not been fully elucidated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate mortality and associated factors within a large GH-replaced population of hypopituitary patients.
In KIMS (Pfizer International Metabolic Database) 13 983 GH-deficient patients with 69 056 patient-years of follow-up were available.
This study analysed standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) by Poisson regression. IGF1 SDS was used as an indicator of adequacy of GH replacement. Statistical significance was set to P<0.05.
All-cause mortality was 13% higher compared with normal population rates (SMR, 1.13; 95% confidence interval, 1.04–1.24). Significant associations were female gender, younger age at follow-up, underlying diagnosis of Cushing's disease, craniopharyngioma and aggressive tumour and presence of diabetes insipidus. After controlling for confounding factors, there were statistically significant negative associations between IGF1 SDS after 1, 2 and 3 years of GH replacement and SMR. For cause-specific mortality there was a negative association between 1-year IGF1 SDS and SMR for deaths from cardiovascular diseases (P=0.017) and malignancies (P=0.044).
GH-replaced patients with hypopituitarism demonstrated a modest increase in mortality rate; this appears lower than that previously published in GH-deficient patients. Factors associated with increased mortality included female gender, younger attained age, aetiology and lower IGF1 SDS during therapy. These data indicate that GH replacement in hypopituitary adults with GH deficiency may be considered a safe treatment.