Transition in health care for young patients with Turner's syndrome (TS) should be perceived as a staged but uninterrupted process starting in adolescence and moving into adulthood. As a condition associated with high risk of short stature, cardiovascular diseases, ovarian failure, hearing loss and hypothyroidism, TS requires the attention of a multidisciplinary team. In this review paper, we systematically searched the relevant literature from the last decade to discuss the array of problems faced by TS patients and to outline their optimal management during the time of transfer to adult service. The literature search identified 233 potentially relevant articles of which 114 were analysed. The analysis confirmed that all medical problems present during childhood should also be followed in adult life. Additionally, screening for hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidaemia, and osteoporosis is needed. After discharge from the paediatric clinic, there is still a long way to go.
Aneta Gawlik and Ewa Malecka-Tendera
Daria Handkiewicz-Junak, Tomasz Gawlik, Jozef Rozkosz, Zbigniew Puch, Barbara Michalik, Elżbieta Gubala, Jolanta Krajewska, Aneta Kluczewska, and Barbara Jarzab
Although recombinant human thyrotropin (rhTSH) is widely used in treating differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), almost all clinical investigation has been in adults. The aim of our retrospective study was to evaluate outcomes of adjuvant, rhTSH-aided radioiodine treatment in children/adolescents with DTC and to compare them to 131I therapy during l-thyroxin withdrawal (THW).
Patients with the diagnosis of DTC who were ≤18 years of age and had no signs of persistent disease at the time of 131I treatment were included; 48 patients were treated after rhTSH (rhTSH group) and 82 after THW group. The median time of follow-up after therapy was 67 months and was longer in the THW group (99 vs 43 months, P<0.05).
On the day of 131I administration, all but one patient had TSH levels above 25 μIU/ml. Peak TSH concentration was significantly higher in the rhTSH group (152 μIU/ml vs 91 μIU/ml). Similarly, the thyroglobulin concentration was higher in the rhTSH group (9.7 ng/ml vs 1.8 ng/ml). No side effects requiring medical intervention were recorded after rhTSH administration. The evaluation of disease outcomes during TSH stimulation (6–18 months after 131I treatment) revealed equal rates of thyroid ablation (71%) in both groups. During subsequent follow-up, five patients showed recurrence (P>0.05).
In children/adolescents, rhTSH-aided adjuvant radioiodine treatment is associated with rates of remnant ablation and short-term recurrence similar to THW. As this preparation has several advantages over THW, rhTSH may become the preferred method of TSH stimulation once studies of long-term outcomes show non-inferiority to THW in this age group.
Angela K Lucas-Herald, Jillian Bryce, Andreas Kyriakou, Marie Lindhardt Ljubicic, Wiebke Arlt, Laura Audí, Antonio Balsamo, Federico Baronio, Silvano Bertelloni, Markus Bettendorf, Antonia Brooke, Hedi L Claahsen-van der Grinten, Justin Davies, Gloria Hermann, Liat de Vries, Ieuan A Hughes, Rieko Tadokoro-Cuccaro, Feyza Darendeliler, Sukran Poyrazoglu, Mona Ellaithi, Olcay Evliyaoglu, Simona Fica, Lavinia Stejereanu, Aneta Gawlik, Evgenia Globa, Nataliya Zelinska, Tulay Guran, Ayla Güven, Sabine Hannema, Olaf Hiort, P-m Holterhus, Violeta Iotova, Vilhelm Mladenov, Vandana Jain, Rajni Sharma, Farida Jennane, Colin Johnston, Gil Guerra-Junior, Daniel Konrad, Odile Gaisl, Nils P Krone, Ruth Krone, Katherine Lachlan, Dejun Li, Corina Lichiardopol, Lidka Lisá, Renata Levoni Markosyan, Inas Mazen, Klaus Mohnike, Marek Niedziela, Anna Nordenstrom, Rodolfo A Rey, Mars Skae, Lloyd JW Tack, Jeremy W Tomlinson, Naomi Weintrob, Martine Cools, and S Faisal Ahmed
Objectives: To determine trends in clinical practice for individuals with DSD requiring gonadectomy.
Design: Retrospective cohort study.
Methods: Information regarding age at gonadectomy according to diagnosis; reported sex; time of presentation to specialist center; and location of center from cases reported to the International DSD Registry and who were over 16 years old in January 2019.
Results: Data regarding gonadectomy were available in 668 (88%) individuals from 44 centers. Of these, 248 (37%) (median age (range) 24 (17, 75) years) were male and 420 (63%) (median age (range) 26 (16, 86) years) were female. Gonadectomy was reported from 36 centers in 351/668 cases (53%). Females were more likely to undergo gonadectomy (n=311, p<0.0001). The indication for gonadectomy was reported in 268 (76%). The most common indication was mitigation of tumour risk in 172 (64%). Variations in the practice of gonadectomy were observed; of the 351 cases from 36 centers, 17 (5%) at 9 centers had undergone gonadectomy before their first presentation to the specialist center. Median age at gonadectomy of cases from high income countries and low/middle income countries (LMIC) was 13.0 yrs (0.1, 68) years and 16.5 yrs (1, 28), respectively (p<0.0001) with the likelihood of long-term retention of gonads being higher in LMIC countries.
Conclusions: The likelihood of gonadectomy depends on the underlying diagnosis, sex of rearing and the geographical setting. Clinical benchmarks, which can be studied across all forms of DSD will allow a better understanding of the variation in the practice of gonadectomy.