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  • Author: Andrzej Lewiński x
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Bożena Popowicz, Mariusz Klencki, Andrzej Lewiński and Dorota Słowińska-Klencka

Objective

To evaluate the efficacy of selected ultrasound (US) features of thyroid focal lesions useful for establishing indications for fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) with regard to the lesion's size.

Methods

US imaging features of 1141 thyroid nodules (shape, echogenicity, pattern of blood flow, presence of microcalcifications and the presence of other nodules in the thyroid) and their palpability were compared with the post-operative histopathological outcomes. The efficacy of the selected sets of the features was assessed for small nodules (SN)≤15 mm and large nodules (LN)>15 mm, as well as separately for nodules≤10 mm.

Results

Logistic regression analysis showed that in SN hypoechogenicity (odds ratios, OR: 3.18), microcalcifications (OR: 19.12), solitary occurrence (OR: 3.29) and height-to-width ratio≥1 (OR: 8.57) were independent risk factors for malignancy. The optimal set of small lesions that should be biopsied includes all lesions presenting at least one of the above-mentioned features (sensitivity 98%, specificity 44%). In the LN group, the selection criteria based on the shape of lesions and hypoechogenicity were less sensitive than in the SN group, but they allowed further reduction in the number of performed FNABs. Large nodules primarily selected for FNAB should be hypoechoic, more tall then wide or contain microcalcifications (sensitivity 84%, specificity 72%).

Conclusions

The obtained results provide rationale for using features from the US examination in selecting both small and large nodules for FNAB. In the case of LN, the usefulness of sonographic features is less sensitive, but more specific than in the case of SN.

Free access

Dorota Słowińska-Klencka, Bożena Popowicz, Andrzej Lewiński, Stanisław Sporny and Mariusz Klencki

Objective

To evaluate the incidence of focal lesions in the thyroid in the area of recently normalized iodine supply as well as to compare the efficacy of fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of small (infracentimetric) and large thyroid lesions in this area.

Methods

The outcomes of 13 646 ultrasound (US) examinations, 13 437 US-guided FNABs of the thyroid and 1694 results of post-operative histopathological examinations were analysed.

Results

Infracentimetric nodules (INs ≤10 mm) were revealed by US examinations in 43.5% of patients; in the majority of the cases (82.2%) INs were multiple. The percentage of revealed carcinomas by aspiration of INs is similar to that observed when large nodules (LNs >10 mm) are examined cytologically. However, the efficiency of preoperative diagnosis of INs is lower than LNs with respect to both US selection of lesions for FNAB and the percentage of false negative results of FNAB (29.8 vs 5.4%, P<0.001). In post-operative histopathological examination, extrathyroidal extension of thyroid cancers was observed in nearly 30% of microcarcinomas.

Conclusions

In endemic or post-endemic areas, the efficiency of FNAB is lower in the case of small lesions than larger ones. In spite of this, the percentage of cytologically revealed carcinomas among small lesions is not lower than larger ones. Thus, it is particularly indicated to follow up small thyroid lesions with repeated US examinations in such areas.