Fibrous dysplasia/McCune–Albright Syndrome (FD/MAS), arising from gain-of-function mutations in Gαs, and cutaneous skeletal hypophosphatemia syndrome (CSHS), arising from gain-of-function mutations in the Ras/MAPK pathway, are strikingly complex, mosaic diseases with overlapping phenotypes. Both disorders are defined by mosaic skin and bone involvement, and both are complicated by increased FGF23 production. These similarities have frequently led to mis-diagnoses, primarily in patients with CSHS who are often assumed to have FD/MAS. The intriguing similarities in skeletal involvement in these genetically distinct disorders have led to novel insights into FGF23 physiology, making an understanding of FD/MAS and CSHS relevant to both clinicians and researchers interested in bone and endocrine disorders. This review will give an overview of FD/MAS and CSHS, focusing on the roles of mosaicism and FGF23 in the pathogenesis and clinical presentation of these disorders.
Luis F de Castro, Diana Ovejero and Alison M Boyce
Andrea Estrada, Alison M Boyce, Beth A Brillante, Lori C Guthrie, Rachel I Gafni and Michael T Collins
McCune–Albright syndrome (MAS) is a rare disorder with a broad spectrum including precocious puberty (PP) due to recurrent estrogen-secreting ovarian cysts. This study evaluates the long-term safety and efficacy of letrozole treatment in large cohort of girls with MAS-associated PP.
Retrospective cohort analysis.
Clinical data, including history and physical examination, bone age, and pelvic ultrasounds, were reviewed on 28 letrozole-treated girls. Adult height was reviewed for 42 historical controls. Outcomes included rate of skeletal maturation, growth velocity, predicted adult height and adult height.
Twenty-eight girls received letrozole treatment. Treatment duration was 4.1 ± 2.6 years (mean ± 1 s.d.) (range: 0.5–10.9) and mean follow-up was 6.0 ± 3.3 years (range: 0.5–15.0), for a total of 135.9 person-years of follow-up. Letrozole treatment was highly effective at decreasing the rate of skeletal maturation, with a decline in change in bone age over change in chronological age (ΔBA/ΔCA) from 1.7 (IQR: 2.3) to 0.5 (IQR: 0.4) (P < 0.0001), and growth velocity Z-scores, which declined from 2.2 ± 2.3 to −0.6 ± 1.6 (P = 0.0004). Predicted adult height Z-scores increased significantly from −2.9 ± 3.2 to −0.8 ± 1.5 for subjects on treatment (P = 0.004). Four subjects who completed treatment reached adult height Z-scores ranging from −1.5 to 1.7 (median: −0.6), which were increased in comparison with untreated historical controls (P = 0.02). There was no change in uterine size or ovarian volumes, and no adverse events over the treatment period.
In this study with the longest follow-up to date, letrozole treatment resulted in sustained beneficial effects on skeletal maturation, growth velocity and predicted adult height.