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Josefin E Löfvenborg, Tomas Andersson, Per-Ola Carlsson, Mozhgan Dorkhan, Leif Groop, Mats Martinell, Tiinamaija Tuomi, Alicja Wolk and Sofia Carlsson

Objective

Sweetened beverage intake is associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes, but its association with autoimmune diabetes is unclear. We aimed to investigate sweetened beverage intake and risk of latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA); autoimmune diabetes with features of type 2 diabetes.

Design/methods

Data from a Swedish population-based study was used, including incident cases of LADA (n = 357) and type 2 diabetes (n = 1136) and randomly selected controls (n = 1371). Diabetes classification was based on onset age (≥35), glutamic acid decarboxylase autoantibodies (GADA) and C-peptide. Sweetened beverage intake information was derived from a validated food frequency questionnaire. ORs adjusted for age, sex, family history of diabetes, education, lifestyle, diet, energy intake and BMI were estimated using logistic regression.

Results

Daily intake of >2 servings of sweetened beverages (consumed by 6% of participants) was associated with increased risk of LADA (OR: 1.99, 95% CI: 1.11–3.56), and for each 200 mL daily serving, OR was 1.15 (95% CI: 1.02–1.29). Findings were similar for sugar-sweetened (OR: 1.18, 95% CI: 1.00–1.39) and artificially sweetened beverages (OR: 1.12, 95% CI: 0.95–1.32). Similarly, each daily serving increment in total sweetened beverage conferred 20% higher type 2 diabetes risk (95% CI: 1.07–1.34). In type 2 diabetes patients, high consumers displayed higher HOMA-IR levels (4.5 vs 3.5, P = 0.0002), but lower HOMA-B levels (55 vs 70, P = 0.0378) than non-consumers. Similar tendencies were seen in LADA.

Conclusions

High intake of sweetened beverages was associated with increased risk of LADA. The observed relationship resembled that with type 2 diabetes, suggesting common pathways possibly involving insulin resistance.