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Renata S Auriemma, Mariano Galdiero, Ludovica F S Grasso, Pasquale Vitale, Alessia Cozzolino, Gaetano Lombardi, Annamaria Colao, and Rosario Pivonello

Background

Somatostatin analogs (SA) are the cornerstone in the medical treatment of acromegaly, used as either primary or adjunctive therapy. In particular, SA are effective in inducing the biochemical remission of the disease and tumor shrinkage, although only few cases of complete disappearance of the pituitary tumor in patients treated with SA as long-acting formulations have been reported. SA withdrawal has been demonstrated to keep safe levels of GH and IGF1 at least in a small subset of patients well responsive to SA, although it is generally followed by disease recurrence after several months.

Case report

A 61-year-old female patient bearing a very large GH-secreting pituitary macroadenoma was treated with 12-month lanreotide Autogel (ATG), at the initial dose of 120 mg/28 days. After 3 months, GH and IGF1 levels were fully normalized, to prolong the administration interval from 28 to 56 days. After 6 months of treatment, a significant tumor shrinkage (90% of baseline size) was observed, whereas GH and IGF1 excess was still well controlled. After 12-month therapy, a complete disappearance of the pituitary tumor was observed, and the hormonal evaluation confirmed the complete biochemical remission of acromegaly. Lanreotide ATG treatment was withdrawn. The clinical, biochemical, and radiological remission of acromegaly was maintained 24 months after lanreotide ATG treatment discontinuation, without evidence of disease recurrence.

Conclusions

This report represents an exemplary case of the potentiality of treatment with lanreotide ATG in inducing a complete remission of acromegalic disease, persistent after a long period of time from treatment withdrawal.

Free access

Carla Giordano, Valentina Guarnotta, Rosario Pivonello, Marco Calogero Amato, Chiara Simeoli, Alessandro Ciresi, Alessia Cozzolino, and Annamaria Colao

Objective

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the most frequent complications of Cushing's syndrome (CS). The aim of this study was to define the changes in insulin sensitivity and/or secretion in relation to glucose tolerance categories in newly diagnosed CS patients.

Design

Cross-sectional study on 140 patients with CS.

Methods

A total of 113 women (80 with pituitary disease and 33 with adrenal disease, aged 41.7±15.7 years) and 27 men (19 with pituitary disease and eight with adrenal disease, aged 38.1±20.01 years) at diagnosis were divided according to glucose tolerance into normal glucose tolerance (CS/NGT), impaired fasting glucose and/or impaired glucose tolerance (CS/prediabetes), and diabetes (CS/DM) groups.

Results

Seventy-one patients had CS/NGT (49.3%), 26 (18.5%) had CS/prediabetes and 43 (30.8%) had CS/DM. Significant increasing trends in the prevalence of family history of diabetes (P<0.001), metabolic syndrome (P<0.001), age (P<0.001) and waist circumference (P=0.043) and decreasing trends in HOMA-β (P<0.001) and oral disposition index (DIo) (P<0.002) were observed among the groups. No significant trends in fasting insulin levels, area under the curve for insulin (AUCINS), Matsuda index of insulin sensitivity (ISI-Matsuda) and visceral adiposity index were detected.

Conclusions

Impairment of glucose tolerance is characterized by the inability of β-cells to adequately compensate for insulin resistance through increased insulin secretion. Age, genetic predisposition and lifestyle, in combination with the duration and degree of hypercortisolism, strongly contribute to the impairment of glucose tolerance in patients with a natural history of CS. A careful phenotypic evaluation of glucose tolerance defects in patients with CS proves useful for the identification of those at a high risk of metabolic complications.

Free access

Renata S Auriemma, Mariano Galdiero, Maria C De Martino, Monica De Leo, Ludovica F S Grasso, Pasquale Vitale, Alessia Cozzolino, Gaetano Lombardi, Annamaria Colao, and Rosario Pivonello

Background

The GH/insulin-like growth factor 1 axis is physiologically involved in the regulation of electrolytes and water homeostasis by kidneys, and influences glomerular filtration and tubular re-absorption processes. The aim of the study was to investigate renal structure and function in acromegalic patients during active disease and disease remission.

Patients

Thirty acromegalic patients (15 males and 15 females), aged 32–70 years, were enrolled for the study. Ten de novo patients had active disease, whereas 20 patients showed disease remission 1 year after medical treatment with somatostatin analogs (SA) (ten patients) or surgery (ten patients). Thirty healthy subjects matched for age, gender, and body surface area were enrolled as controls.

Results

In both active (A) and controlled (C) patients, creatinine clearance (P<0.001) and citrate (P<0.05) and oxalate levels (P<0.001) were higher, whereas filtered Na (P<0.001) and K (P<0.001) fractional excretions were lower than those in the controls. Urinary Ca (P<0.001) and Ph (P<0.05) levels were significantly increased compared with the controls, and in patients with disease control, urinary Ca (P<0.001) levels were significantly reduced compared with active patients. Microalbuminuria was significantly increased in active patients (P<0.05) compared with controlled patients and healthy control subjects. The longitudinal (P<0.05) and transverse (P<0.05) diameters of kidneys were significantly higher than those in the controls. In all patients, the prevalence of micronephrolithiasis was higher than that in the controls (P<0.001), and was significantly correlated to disease duration (r=0.871, P<0.001) and hydroxyproline values (r=0.639, P<0.001).

Conclusions

The results of the current study demonstrated that acromegaly affects both renal structure and function. The observed changes are not completely reversible after disease remission.

Restricted access

Alessia Cozzolino, Tiziana Feola, Ilaria Simonelli, Giulia Puliani, Valeria Hasenmajer, Marianna Minnetti, Elisa Giannetta, Daniele Gianfrilli, Patrizio Pasqualetti, Andrea Lenzi, and Andrea M Isidori

Objective

Neurosurgery is the first-line treatment for acromegaly. Whether metabolic disorders are reversible after neurosurgery is still debated. The meta-analysis aimed to address the following questions: (i) Does neurosurgery affect glycolipid metabolism? (ii) Are these effects related to disease control or follow-up length?

Design

A meta-analysis and systematic review of the literature.

Methods

Three reviewers searched databases until August 2019 for prospective trials reporting glycometabolic outcomes after neurosurgery. Three other extracted outcomes, all assessed the risk of bias.

Results

Twenty studies were included. Neurosurgery significantly reduced fasting plasma glucose (FPG) (effect size (ES): −0.57 mmol/L, 95% CI: −0.82 to −0.31; P < 0.001), glucose load (ES: −1.10 mmol/L, 95% CI: −1.66 to −0.53; P < 0.001), glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) (ES: −0.28%, 95% CI: −0.42 to −0.14; P < 0.001), fasting plasma insulin (FPI) (ES: −10.53 mU/L, 95% CI: −14.54 to −6.51; P < 0.001), homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (ES: −1.98, 95% CI: −3.24 to −0.72; P = 0.002), triglycerides (TGDs) (ES: −0.28 mmol/L, 95% CI: −0.36 to −0.20; P < 0.001) and LDL-cholesterol (LDLC) (ES: −0.23 mmol/L, 95% CI: −0.45 to −0.02 mmol/L); P = 0.030) and increased HDL-cholesterol (HDLC) (ES: 0.21 mmol/L, 95% CI: 0.14 to 0.28; P < 0.001). Meta-regression analysis showed that follow-up length – not disease control – had a significant effect on FPG, with the greatest reduction in the shortest follow-up (beta = 0.012, s.e. = 0.003; P = 0.001).

Conclusions

Neurosurgery improves metabolism with a significant decrease in FPG, glucose load, HbA1c, FPI, HOMA-IR, TGDs, and LDLC and increase in HDLC. The effect on FPG seems to be more related to follow-up length than to disease control.

Restricted access

Salvatore Crisafulli, Nicoletta Luxi, Janet Sultana, Andrea Fontana, Federica Spagnolo, Giuseppe Giuffrida, Francesco Ferrau, Daniele Gianfrilli, Alessia Cozzolino, Maria Cristina De Martino, Federico Gatto, Francesco Barone-Adesi, Salvatore Cannavò, and Gianluca Trifirò

Objective: To date, no systematic reviews and meta-analysis on the global epidemiology of acromegaly are available in literature. The aims of this study are to provide a systematic review and a meta-analysis of the global epidemiology of acromegaly and to evaluate the quality of study reporting for the identified studies.

Methods: MEDLINE, EMBASE and The Cochrane Library databases were searched for studies assessing the epidemiology of acromegaly from inception until 31st January 2020. We included original observational studies written in English, reporting acromegaly prevalence and/or incidence for a well-defined geographic area. Two reviewers independently extracted data and performed quality assessments. Prevalence and incidence pooled estimates were derived performing a random-effects meta-analysis.

Results: A total of 32 studies were included in the systematic review, and 22 of them were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled prevalence of acromegaly was 5.9 (95%CI: 4.4-7.9) per 100,000 persons, while the incidence rate (IR) was 0.38 (95%CI: 0.32-0.44) cases per 100,000 person-years. For both prevalence and IR, a considerable between-study heterogeneity was found (I2= 99.3% and 86.0%, respectively). The quality of study reporting was rated as medium for 20 studies and low for 12 studies.

Conclusions: Although the largest amount of heterogeneity was due to the high precision of the studies’ estimates, data source and geographic area could represent relevant study-levels factors which could explain about 50% of the total between-study variability. Large-scale high quality studies on the epidemiology of acromegaly are warranted to help the public health system in making decisions.