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  • Author: Alberto Verrotti x
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Alberto Verrotti, Melissa Laus, Alessandra Scardapane, Emilio Franzoni and Francesco Chiarelli

Objective

This study evaluates the effects of long-term carbamazepine (CBZ) and valproate acid (VPA) therapy on thyroid function in epileptic children.

Design

A prospective study performed in 32 newly diagnosed pediatric patients, subdivided into two groups: 18 patients treated with CBZ and 14 patients treated with VPA. Thirty-two sex- and age- matched subjects served as controls.

Methods

Serum TSH, thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3), free thyroxine (fT4), free triiodothyronine (fT3), thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO-Ab), and thyroglobulin antibodies (TG-Ab) were evaluated at baseline and at the 3rd, 6th, and 12th month in all patients and in the control group. A TRH stimulation test was performed in all epileptic patients at baseline and at the 3rd, 6th, and 12th month evaluations while in controls only baseline assessment was carried out.

Results

At baseline evaluation, thyroid function was normal in all epileptic children. After 3 months, CBZ-treated patients showed serum T4 and fT4 levels significantly lower than baseline evaluation and control subjects. Serum T4 and fT4 concentrations were unaffected by VPA monotherapy. Serum T3 and fT3 were normal in both CBZ-treated and VPA-treated patients. TRH test was normal in all patients. At 6th and 12th month evaluations, the same alterations were present in CBZ-treated patients while thyroid function remained normal in VPA-treated patients. TRH test responses were normal in all epileptic patients. TPO-Ab and TG-Ab were always absent in all patients.

Conclusions

Our data suggest that VPA monotherapy does not alter thyroid hormones. On the contrary, alterations of thyroid hormones occur in CBZ-treated children. However, the patients are euthyroid and thyroid hormone alterations are not associated with clinical or subclinical hypothyroidism.

Free access

Alberto Verrotti, Alessandra Scaparrotta, Cristina Olivieri and Francesco Chiarelli

In this review, we will try to analyze the possible coexistence between epilepsy or seizures and type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), in order to establish if there is more than a casual association, and to investigate possible mechanisms underlying this link. Anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (GAD-Abs) have been associated with T1DM and a great number of neurological diseases such as epilepsy. Epilepsy can be a feature of a large variety of autoimmune or inflammatory disorders. GAD-Abs can have a role at the basis of the possible link between epilepsy and T1DM, although their real pathogenetic mechanism in neurological diseases is still unknown. Metabolic conditions such as hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia, common problems in diabetic patients, may be also implicated, even if their underlying mechanism is minimally understood.

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Valentina Chiavaroli, Marco Liberati, Francesco D'Antonio, Fabio Masuccio, Rita Capanna, Alberto Verrotti, Francesco Chiarelli and Angelika Mohn

Objective

GNRH analog (GNRHa) therapy has not been supported by beneficial effects on adult stature in girls with early puberty. Furthermore, an increased prevalence of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) has been described in girls treated for central precocious puberty. Women with PCOS are at increased risk of cardiometabolic dysfunctions and infertility. Our aim was to assess GNRHa effectiveness on reaching adult stature and the risk of PCOS in girls with early puberty.

Design

Longitudinal study of GNRHa-treated and GNRHa-untreated girls at baseline and at final height.

Methods

Twenty-five GNRHa-treated girls and 55 controls were compared. Insulin resistance (IR; homeostasis model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR) and glucose-to-insulin ratio (G/I)), the effect of GNRHa on final height, and the prevalence of PCOS were assessed.

Results

In GNRHa-treated girls, no significant difference was found between predicted final height and final height, whereas a significant difference was detected in untreated girls (P=0.0001). At final height, GNRHa-treated girls showed higher HOMA-IR and lower G/I (P=0.03 for both) as well as higher DHEAS and androstenedione levels (P=0.02 and P=0.01 respectively) than untreated girls. The prevalence of PCOS and hyperandrogenemia was significantly higher in GNRHa-treated adolescents than in untreated adolescents (36 and 14.5% respectively, P=0.04; 56 and 23.6% respectively, P=0.01). Finally, gonadotropin-suppressive therapy was significantly related to PCOS during adolescence (P=0.03).

Conclusions

In girls with early puberty, GNRHa therapy is associated with the achievement of predicted final height; nevertheless, this treatment seems to act as an independent risk factor for the development of PCOS already during adolescence.