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Charlotte Lepoutre-Lussey, Audrey Rousseau, Abir Al Ghuzlan, Laurence Amar, Chantal Hignette, Angela Cioffi, Franck Zinzindohoué, Sophie Leboulleux, and Pierre-François Plouin


Primary adrenal angiosarcoma is an extremely rare neoplasm, as are combined tumors within a given adrenal lesion.

Clinical presentation and intervention

A 35-year-old man presented with hypokalemic hypertension leading to the discovery of a 6 cm diameter malignant-appearing right adrenal tumor. The lesion displayed marked 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake on positron emission tomography scanning. Endocrine investigations revealed secretion of both cortisol and aldosterone by the neoplasm. The entire right adrenal gland along with the periadrenal fat tissue was removed during laparoscopic surgery.


Histological examination revealed two intermingled tumor cell proliferations, namely an angiosarcoma and an adrenocortical adenoma. An extensive post-operative search revealed no other primary tumor site, nor metastases. The lesion was then considered to be a primary adrenal angiosarcoma combined with a secreting adrenocortical adenoma. The patient received four cycles of chemotherapy (adriamycin/ifosfamide). At 2-year follow-up, he is alive and well, with no sign of relapse.


To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of an adrenal neoplasm combining a primary angiosarcoma and a functioning adrenocortical adenoma.

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Sophie Mauclère-Denost, Sophie Leboulleux, Isabelle Borget, Angelo Paci, Jacques Young, Abir Al Ghuzlan, Desiree Deandreis, Laurence Drouard, Antoine Tabarin, Philippe Chanson, Martin Schlumberger, and Eric Baudin


The benefit-to-risk ratio of a high-dose strategy at the initiation of mitotane treatment of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) remains unknown.


To evaluate the performance of a high-dose strategy, defined as the highest tolerated dose administered within 2 weeks and maintenance therapy over 4 weeks, we conducted a single-center, prospective study with two main objectives: to evaluate the percentage of patients who achieve a plasma mitotane level above 14 mg/l and to evaluate the tolerance of mitotane within the first 3 months of treatment. Plasma mitotane levels were measured monthly using HPLC.


Twenty-two patients with ACC were prospectively enrolled. The high-dose mitotane strategy (4 g/day or more in all patients, with a median of 6 g/day within 2 weeks) enabled to reach the therapeutic threshold of >14 mg/l at 1, 2, or 3 months in 6/22 patients (27%), 7/22 patients (32%), and 7/22 patients (32%) respectively. In total, a therapeutic plasma mitotane level was reached in 14 out of 22 patients (63.6%) during the first 3 months in ten patients, and after 3 months in four patients. Grade 3–4 neurological or hematological toxicities were observed in three patients (13.6%).


Employing a high-dose strategy at the time of mitotane initiation enabled therapeutic plasma levels of mitotane to be reached within 1 month in 27% of the total group of patients. If this strategy is adopted, we suggest that mitotane dose is readjusted according to plasma mitotane levels at 1 or/and 2 months and patient tolerance.

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Livia Lamartina, Sophie Bidault, Julien Hadoux, Joanne Guerlain, Elizabeth Girard, Ingrid Breuskin, Marie Attard, Voichita Suciu, Eric Baudin, Abir Al Ghuzlan, Sophie Leboulleux, and Dana Hartl


The presence of extrathyroidal extension (ETE) is generally considered an indication for total thyroidectomy for differentiated thyroid cancer. The accuracy of neck ultrasound for the diagnosis of ETE is controversial. The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of preoperative ultrasound evaluation of ETE.


Retrospective and observational study of consecutive patients operated between 2016 and 2019 for cytologically suspicious or indeterminate thyroid nodules. US images obtained preoperatively were retrospectively reviewed to identify signs of minimal or gross ETE. Histology was considered the gold standard for diagnosis of ETE. The sensitivity, specificity, positive (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV), and accuracy of US were evaluated.


A cohort of 305 patients (75% females, median age 48 years) with 378 nodules (median size 18 mm) was studied. Seventy-five percent of the nodules (n=228) were malignant on histology and ETE was present in 106 cases (28%): 83 minimal ETE and 23 gross ETE. Suspicion of minimal ETE on preoperative ultrasound was found in 50 (13%) with a sensitivity of 30%, a specificity of 93%, a PPV 62% and a NPV of 78%, with an accuracy of 76%. Gross ETE on ultrasound was found in 19 (5%) nodules with a sensitivity of 78%, a specificity of 99.7% a PPV 94.7% an NPV of 98.6% and an accuracy of 98%.


Preoperative US is very specific and accurate in diagnosing gross ETE which impacts the extent of initial surgery for thyroid cancers.

Free access

Eric Baudin, Mouhammed Amir Habra, Frederic Deschamps, Gilbert Cote, Frederic Dumont, Maria Cabanillas, J Arfi-Roufe, A Berdelou, Bryan Moon, Abir Al Ghuzlan, Shreyaskumar Patel, Sophie Leboulleux, and Camilo Jimenez

Metastatic pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (MPPs) present clinicians with three major challenges: scarcity, complexity of characterization, and heterogeneous behavior and prognosis. As with the treatment for all neuroendocrine tumors, the control of hormonal symptoms and tumor growth is the main therapeutic objective in MPP patients. A significant number of MPP patients still die from uncontrolled hormone secretion. In addition, the management of MPPs remains palliative. Steps forward include proper characterization of MPP patients at large cancer referral centers with multidisciplinary teams; improved strategies to stratify patients prognostically; and implementation of trials within national and international networks. Progress in the molecular characterization and staging of MPPs constitutes the basis for significant treatment breakthroughs.