OBJECTIVE: Recently a new depot preparation of the long-acting somatostatin analogue, lanreotide Autogel was introduced for the treatment of acromegaly. Like octreotide long-acting repeatable (LAR), it has high binding affinity for the somatostatin receptor subtype SSTR 2 and less binding affinity for SSTR 5. We hypothesized that the ability to suppress growth hormone (GH) secretion in patients with acromegaly would be similar for these depot preparations. PATIENTS AND STUDY DESIGN: Seven patients (mean age+/-S.E.M. 48.4+/-7 years) on long-term octreotide LAR treatment at a monthly injection interval for a mean of 2.8 years were enrolled in the study. They underwent a GH secretory profile study with 10 min sampling for 24 h, 28 days after an injection. At 2, 4 and 6 weeks after the next injection fasting GH profiles (every 30 min for 3.5 h) and serum IGF-I measurements were measured. These investigations were repeated 12 months later, when the patients were on an individually titrated stable dose of lanreotide Autogel. RESULTS: Secretory characteristics and total 24 h GH secretion, estimated by deconvolution analysis of the 10 min 24 h plasma GH concentrations, did not show differences between these two long-acting somatostatin analogues. Both drugs were equally effective in GH and IGF-I suppression as measured at 2, 4 and also at 6 weeks following an injection. CONCLUSION: The efficacy of lanreotide Autogel and octreotide LAR was equal, notwithstanding that these drugs are administered in a different way and have different pharmacokinetics.
SW van Thiel, JA Romijn, NR Biermasz, BE Ballieux, M Frolich, JW Smit, EP Corssmit, F Roelfsema and AM Pereira
Elena Valassi, Antoine Tabarin, Thierry Brue, Richard A Feelders, Martin Reincke, Romana Netea-Maier, Miklós Tóth, Sabina Zacharieva, Susan M Webb, Stylianos Tsagarakis, Philippe Chanson, Marija Pfeiffer, Michael Droste, Irina Komerdus, Darko Kastelan, Dominique Maiter, Olivier Chabre, Holger Franz, Alicia Santos, Christian J Strasburger, Peter J Trainer, John Newell-Price, Oskar Ragnarsson and the ERCUSYN Study Group
Patients with Cushing’s syndrome (CS) have increased mortality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the causes and time of death in a large cohort of patients with CS and to establish factors associated with increased mortality.
In this cohort study, we analyzed 1564 patients included in the European Registry on CS (ERCUSYN); 1045 (67%) had pituitary-dependent CS, 385 (25%) adrenal-dependent CS, 89 (5%) had an ectopic source and 45 (3%) other causes. The median (IQR) overall follow-up time in ERCUSYN was 2.7 (1.2–5.5) years.
Forty-nine patients had died at the time of the analysis; 23 (47%) with pituitary-dependent CS, 6 (12%) with adrenal-dependent CS, 18 (37%) with ectopic CS and two (4%) with CS due to other causes. Of 42 patients whose cause of death was known, 15 (36%) died due to progression of the underlying disease, 13 (31%) due to infections, 7 (17%) due to cardiovascular or cerebrovascular disease and 2 due to pulmonary embolism. The commonest cause of death in patients with pituitary-dependent CS and adrenal-dependent CS were infectious diseases (n = 8) and progression of the underlying tumor (n = 10) in patients with ectopic CS. Patients who had died were older and more often males, and had more frequently muscle weakness, diabetes mellitus and ectopic CS, compared to survivors. Of 49 deceased patients, 22 (45%) died within 90 days from start of treatment and 5 (10%) before any treatment was given. The commonest cause of deaths in these 27 patients were infections (n = 10; 37%). In a regression analysis, age, ectopic CS and active disease were independently associated with overall death before and within 90 days from the start of treatment.
Mortality rate was highest in patients with ectopic CS. Infectious diseases were the commonest cause of death soon after diagnosis, emphasizing the need for careful clinical vigilance at that time, especially in patients presenting with concomitant diabetes mellitus.