E N Klein Hesselink, D Steenvoorden, E Kapiteijn, E P Corssmit, A N A van der Horst-Schrivers, J D Lefrandt, T P Links and O M Dekkers
Many tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have been studied in patients with thyroid carcinoma (TC). However, the effect and toxicity of various TKIs in differentiated TC (DTC) and medullary TC (MTC) patients have not been directly compared. The aim of the present systematic review and meta-analysis was to systematically summarize response and toxicity of TKIs in TC patients.
All major databases were systematically searched for publications on TKIs in TC. Primary endpoint was objective response; secondary endpoints were clinical benefit, percentage TKI dose reduction/discontinuation, hand–foot syndrome, diarrhea, and nausea/vomiting. Meta-analysis was performed using an exact likelihood approach and a logistic regression. Pooled percentages and 95% CIs were reported.
In total, 22 publications were included. For DTC patients, gefitinib induced no objective responses. Pooled percentage was highest for pazopanib, 49 (95% CI 33–64)%, and was 17 (95% CI 12–24)% for sorafenib. For MTC, gefitinib and imatinib induced no objective responses, whereas sunitinib induced objective response in 43 (95% CI 14–77)%. For vandetanib and cabozantinib, these numbers were 40 (95% CI 34–46)% and 27 (95% CI 22–32)% respectively. Clinical benefit was found in 53 (95% CI 48–59)% of DTC patients on sorafenib, and in 84 (95% CI 79–88)% and 55 (95% CI 49–61)% of MTC patients on vandetanib and cabozantinib respectively. All TKIs were associated with considerable toxicity.
The currently studied TKIs show a modest response, while side effects are not negligible. Therefore, we suggest to solely consider TKIs in TC patients with rapid progressive disease, for whom the benefits of treatment outweigh toxicity.
M D Aydemirli, E Kapiteijn, K R M Ferrier, P B Ottevanger, T P Links, A N A van der Horst-Schrivers, K E Broekman, R H H Groenwold and J Zwaveling
The SELECT trial showed progression-free survival (PFS) benefit for lenvatinib for advanced radioiodine-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer (RAI-refractory or RR-DTC) patients, on which current clinical practice is based. We assessed whether the effectiveness and toxicity of lenvatinib in real-life clinical practice in the Netherlands were comparable to the pivotal SELECT trial.
From three Dutch centres Electronic Health Records (EHRs) of patients treated in the lenvatinib compassionate use program or as standard of care were reviewed and checked for SELECT eligibility criteria. Baseline characteristics, safety, and efficacy measures were compared and PFS and overall survival (OS) were calculated. Furthermore, PFS was compared to estimates of PFS reported in other studies.
A total of 39 DTC patients with a median age of 62 years were analysed. Of these, 27 patients (69%) did not fulfil the SELECT eligibility criteria. The most common grade ≥3 toxicities were hypertension (n = 11, 28%), diarrhoea (n = 7, 18%), vomiting (n = 4, 10%), and gallbladder disease (n = 3, 8%). Median PFS and median OS were 9.7 (95% confidence interval (CI): 4.0–15.5) and 18.3 (95% CI: 4.9–31.7) months, respectively, response rate was 38% (95% CI: 23–54%). PFS in the Dutch real-life situation was comparable to previous real-life studies, but inferior to PFS as shown in the SELECT trial (P = 0.04).
PFS in our non-trial population was significantly shorter than in the SELECT trial population. In the interpretation of results, differences in the real-life population and the SELECT study population regarding patient characteristics should be taken into account.
Annika M A Berends, Michiel N Kerstens, Janne W Bolt, Thera P Links, Esther Korpershoek, Ronald R de Krijger, Annemiek M E Walenkamp, Walter Noordzij, Boudewijn van Etten, Gursah Kats-Ugurlu, Adrienne H Brouwers and Anouk N A van der Horst-Schrivers
PET with 6-[18F]fluor-l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (18F-FDOPA) has been shown to be a useful imaging tool with a high sensitivity for the visualization of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). 18F-FDOPA uptake in tumors other than NETs has been suggested previously, but data on this phenomenon are limited. We therefore studied the non-physiological, false-positive uptake of 18F-FDOPA in a large population of patients with a NET or with a high clinical suspicion of harboring a NET.
Patients and methods
Retrospective single-center study among adult patients in whom 18F-FDOPA PET scintigraphy was performed between January 2004 and December 2014. The original scan report was compared with the original pathology report corresponding with the 18F-FDOPA PET-positive lesion. In case this was inconsistent with the diagnosis of a NET, both the scan and the pathology slides were reassessed. Specimens of these non-NET tissues were immunohistochemically stained for AADC.
1070 18F-FDOPA PET scans from 705 patients were evaluated. Focal or multiple 18F-FDOPA-avid lesions were described in 709 18F-FDOPA PET scans (66%). Histology of these 18F-FDOPA PET-positive lesions was present in 508 (72%) cases. In seven cases, the histopathology was not compatible with NET but showed squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix, multiple myeloma (two cases), hepatocellular carcinoma, Schwannoma, adrenocortical carcinoma and a skeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma, with positive immunohistochemical staining for AADC in 67%.
Pathological uptake of 18F-FDOPA does not always indicate the presence of a NET. The possibility of 18F-FDOPA uptake by tumor types other than NETs, although rare, should be considered.
Nicolasine D Niemeijer, Johannes A Rijken, Karin Eijkelenkamp, Anouk N A van der Horst-Schrivers, Michiel N Kerstens, Carli M J Tops, Anouk van Berkel, Henri J L M Timmers, Henricus P M Kunst, C René Leemans, Peter H Bisschop, Koen M A Dreijerink, Marieke F van Dooren, Jean-Pierre Bayley, Alberto M Pereira, Jeroen C Jansen, Frederik J Hes, Erik F Hensen and Eleonora P M Corssmit
Succinate dehydrogenase B subunit (SDHB) gene germline mutations predispose to pheochromocytomas, sympathetic paragangliomas, head and neck paragangliomas and non-paraganglionic tumors (e.g. renal cell carcinoma, gastrointestinal stromal tumor and pituitary neoplasia). The aim of this study was to determine phenotypical characteristics of a large Dutch cohort of SDHB germline mutation carriers and assess differences in clinical phenotypes related to specific SDHB mutations.
Retrospective descriptive study.
Retrospective descriptive study in seven academic centers.
We included 194 SDHB mutation carriers consisting 65 (33.5%) index patients and 129 (66.5%) relatives. Mean age was 44.8 ± 16.0 years. Median duration of follow-up was 2.6 years (range: 0–36). Sixty persons (30.9%) carried the exon 3 deletion and 46 (23.7%) the c.423 + 1G > A mutation. Fifty-four mutation carriers (27.8%) had one or multiple head and neck paragangliomas, 4 (2.1%) had a pheochromocytoma and 26 (13.4%) had one or more sympathetic paragangliomas. Fifteen patients (7.7%) developed metastatic paraganglioma and 17 (8.8%) developed non-paraganglionic tumors. At study close, there were 111 (57.2%) unaffected mutation carriers. Statistical analyses showed no significant differences in the number and location of head and neck paragangliomas, sympathetic paragangliomas or pheochromocytomas, nor in the occurrence of metastatic disease or other tumors between carriers of the two founder SDHB mutations (exon 3 deletion vs c.423 + 1G > A).
In this nationwide study of disease-affected and unaffected SDHB mutation carriers, we observed a lower rate of metastatic disease and a relatively high number of head and neck paragangliomas compared with previously reported referral-based cohorts.
E B Conemans, L Lodewijk, C B Moelans, G J A Offerhaus, C R C Pieterman, F H Morsink, O M Dekkers, W W de Herder, A R Hermus, A N van der Horst-Schrivers, M L Drent, P H Bisschop, B Havekes, L A A Brosens, K M A Dreijerink, I H M Borel Rinkes, H Th M Timmers, G D Valk and M R Vriens
Epigenetic changes contribute to pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (PanNET) development. Hypermethylation of promoter DNA as a cause of tumor suppressor gene silencing is a well-established oncogenic mechanism that is potentially reversible and therefore an interesting therapeutic target. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is the most frequent cause of inherited PanNETs. The aim of this study was to determine promoter methylation profiles in MEN1-related PanNETs.
Design and methods
Methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification was used to assess promoter methylation of 56 tumor suppressor genes in MEN1-related (n = 61) and sporadic (n = 34) PanNETs. Differences in cumulative methylation index (CMI), individual methylation percentages and frequency of promoter hypermethylation between subgroups were analyzed.
We found promoter methylation of a large number of potential tumor suppressor genes. CMI (median CMI: 912 vs 876, P = 0.207) was the same in MEN1-related and sporadic PanNETs. We found higher methylation percentages of CASP8 in MEN1-related PanNETs (median: 59% vs 16.5%, P = 0.002). In MEN1-related non-functioning PanNETs, the CMI was higher in larger PanNETs (>2 cm) (median: 969.5 vs 838.5; P = 0.021) and in PanNETs with liver metastases (median: 1036 vs 869; P = 0.013). Hypermethylation of MGMT2 was more frequent in non-functioning PanNETs compared to insulinomas (median: 44.7% vs 8.3%; P = 0.022). Hypermethylation of the Von Hippel–Lindau gene promoter was observed in one MEN1-related PanNET and was associated with loss of protein expression.
Promoter hypermethylation is a frequent event in MEN1-related and sporadic PanNETs. Targeting DNA methylation could be of therapeutic value in MEN1 patients with advanced PanNETs.
Lutske Lodewijk, Pim J Bongers, Jakob W Kist, Elfi B Conemans, Joanne M de Laat, Carla R C Pieterman, Anouk N A van der Horst-Schrivers, Ciska Jorna, Ad R Hermus, Olaf M Dekkers, Wouter W de Herder, Madeleine L Drent, Peter H Bisschop, Bas Havekes, Inne H M Borel Rinkes, Menno R Vriens and Gerlof D Valk
Currently, little is known about the prevalence of thyroid tumors in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) patients and it is unclear whether tumorigenesis of these thyroid tumors is MEN1-related. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of thyroid incidentalomas in MEN1 patients compared with nonMEN1 patients and to verify whether thyroid tumorigenesis is MEN1-related.
A cross-sectional study.
The study included two groups: patients with MEN1 and a matched non-MEN1 control group without known thyroid disease, who underwent an ultrasound of the neck for the localization of parathyroid adenoma. Ninety-five MEN1 patients underwent ultrasound of the neck and were matched on gender and age with non-MEN1 patients. The prevalence of thyroid incidentalomas described in the ultrasound report was scored. Multinodular goiters, solitary nodes, and cysts were scored as incidentalomas. Presence of nuclear menin expression was evaluated by menin immunostaining of the thyroid tumors.
In the MEN1 group, 43 (45%) patients had a thyroid incidentaloma compared with 48 (51%) in the non-MEN1 group, of which 14 (15%) and 16 (17%), respectively, were solitary nodes. Menin was expressed in the nuclei of all evaluated thyroid tumors.
MEN1 patients do not have a higher prevalence of thyroid incidentalomas compared with primary hyperparathyroidism patients without the diagnosis of MEN1. Menin was expressed in the thyroid tumors of MEN1 patients.
Marloes Nies, Bernadette L Dekker, Esther Sulkers, Gea A Huizinga, Mariëlle S Klein Hesselink, Heleen Maurice-Stam, Martha A Grootenhuis, Adrienne H Brouwers, Johannes G M Burgerhof, Eveline W C M van Dam, Bas Havekes, Marry M van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Eleonora P M Corssmit, Leontien C M Kremer, Romana T Netea-Maier, Heleen J H van der Pal, Robin P Peeters, John T M Plukker, Cécile M Ronckers, Hanneke M van Santen, Anouk N A van der Horst-Schrivers, Wim J E Tissing, Gianni Bocca and Thera P Links
The impact of childhood differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) on psychosocial development has not yet been studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the achievement of psychosocial developmental milestones in long-term survivors of childhood DTC.
Design and methods
Survivors of childhood DTC diagnosed between 1970 and 2013 were included. Reasons for exclusion were age <18 or >35 years at follow-up, a follow-up period <5 years or diagnosis with DTC as a second malignant neoplasm. Survivors gathered peer controls of similar age and sex (n = 30). A comparison group non-affected with cancer (n = 508) and other childhood cancer survivors (CCS) were also used to compare psychosocial development. To assess the achievement of psychosocial milestones (social, autonomy and psychosexual development), the course of life questionnaire (CoLQ) was used.
We included 39 survivors of childhood DTC (response rate 83.0%, mean age at diagnosis 15.6 years, and mean age at evaluation 26.1 years). CoLQ scores did not significantly differ between survivors of childhood DTC and the two non-affected groups. CoLQ scores of childhood DTC survivors were compared to scores of other CCS diagnosed at similar ages (n = 76). DTC survivors scored significantly higher on social development than other CCS, but scores were similar on autonomy and psychosexual developmental scales.
Survivors of childhood DTC showed similar development on social, autonomy, and psychosexual domains compared to non-affected individuals. Social development was slightly more favorable in DTC survivors than in other CCS, but was similar on autonomy and psychosexual domains.