Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 2 of 2 items for

  • Author: A C Lankester x
  • Refine by Access: All content x
Clear All Modify Search
Free access

Y Vardizer, A Lupetti, S Vandelanotte, A C Lankester, W M Wiersinga, and L Baldeschi


For many years, the treatment of X-linked childhood cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy (XALD) consisted of hydrocortisone replacement and a mixture of short chain-fatty acids, known as ‘Lorenzo's oil’. Recently, bone marrow transplantation (BMT) has also been used.

Case report

We report the case of a patient affected by XALD who developed Graves' hyperthyroidism (GH) and Graves' orbitopathy (GO) after BMT and who we could follow-up for 6.5 years afterwards.

Evidence synthesis

A boy affected by XALD was treated at the age of 6 years, with a whole BMT from his sister. One year after BMT, the transplanted patient presented TSH at the lower normal value and 3 years later he developed thyrotoxicosis. After a further 2 years, the patient developed GO, which showed clinical evidence of reactivation 5 years after its onset as a consequence of an attempt to treat thyrotoxicosis by means of I131 (300 MBq). Seven years after BMT, the donor showed alterations of thyroid autoimmunity and 1 year thereafter she developed GH. She never presented GO during a subsequent 5 year follow-up.


This case illustrates that autoimmunity originating from a pre-symptomatic donor can be transferred into the host during allogeneic stem cell transplantation. In cases where autoimmune phenomena are recognized in the donor prior to donation, alternative donors or T-cell manipulation of the graft might be considered.

Free access

D Mul, S Wu, R A de Paus, W Oostdijk, A C Lankester, H A van Duyvenvoorde, C A L Ruivenkamp, M Losekoot, M J D van Tol, F De Luca, E van de Vosse, and J M Wit


The established causes of GH insensitivity include defects of the GH receptor and STAT5B. The latter condition is also characterized by severe immunodeficiency. A recent case with short stature, GH resistance, and immunodeficiency due to an I κ B mutation suggests that the NF-κB pathway may interact with STAT5B signaling.


Here, we present a case of a short child with several congenital anomalies as well as GH insensitivity and mild immunodeficiency associated with a mosaic de novo duplication of chromosome 17q21–25, suggesting that overexpression of one of the duplicated genes may be implicated in GH resistance.

Methods and results

In vitro studies on blood lymphocytes showed disturbed signaling of the CD28 pathway, involving NF-κB and related proteins. Functional studies on cultured skin fibroblasts revealed that NF-κB activation, PI3K activity, and STAT5 phosphorylation in response to GH were suppressed, while the sensitivity to GH in terms of MAPK phosphorylation was increased. An in silico analysis of the duplicated genes showed that M AP3K3 and PRKCA are associated with the NF-κB pathway. Baseline MAP3K3 expression in T-cell blasts (TCBs) was normal, but PRKCA expression in TCBs and fibroblasts was significantly higher than that in control cells.


We conclude that the 17q21–25 duplication is associated with GH insensitivity and disturbed STAT5B, PI3K, and NF-κB signaling, possibly due to PRKCA mRNA overexpression.