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Marco Marigliano, Anita Morandi, Maddalena Maschio, Silvia Costantini, Giovanna Contreas, Giuseppe D'Annunzio, Valeria Calcaterra, and Claudio Maffeis


To explore the relationship between family history of diabetes and frequency of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) at diagnosis and to analyze the possible association between HLA genotypes and DKA.

Design and methods

We recruited 510 children and adolescents aged <17 years with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and collected information on first-degree relative (FDR) history of T1D. DKA and severe DKA were defined as blood pH <7.30 and <7.10 at diabetes onset respectively. Risk categories for developing T1D were determined according to various HLA DQA1-DQB1 haplotype combination genotypes.


The frequency of DKA and severe DKA at diagnosis was 34.7 and 7.2% respectively. DKA was more frequent in younger patients (<2 years (60.0%; P<0.001)) and occurred less in children with at least one FDR affected by T1D (13.0 vs 37.4%, P<0.001). The logistic regression showed that age at diagnosis (<2 years) and increased HLA-associated risk genotypes were independent predictors of DKA (P<0.01, odds ratio (OR)=1.068 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.021–1.117); P<0.05, OR=1.606 (95% CI 1.034–2.475)). Introducing the presence of T1D in at least one FDR in the logistic model, a significant association between DKA and age at diagnosis (<2 years; P<0.01, OR=1.072 (95% CI 1.024–1.123)) and absence of FDRs with T1D (P=0.001, OR=4.287 (95% CI 1.770–10.383)) was found, but no more with increased HLA-associated risk genotype (P=0.06, OR=1.550 (95% CI 0.992–2.423)).


HLA-associated high-risk genotypes are associated with a high chance of presenting DKA at diabetes onset. However, having at least one FDR with T1D reduced the risk of DKA regardless of HLA genotype.

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Riccardo Bonfanti, Dario Iafusco, Ivana Rabbone, Giacomo Diedenhofen, Carla Bizzarri, Patrizia Ippolita Patera, Petra Reinstadler, Francesco Costantino, Valeria Calcaterra, Lorenzo Iughetti, Silvia Savastio, Anna Favia, Francesca Cardella, Donatella Lo Presti, Ylenia Girtler, Sarah Rabbiosi, Giuseppe D’Annunzio, Angela Zanfardino, Alessia Piscopo, Francesca Casaburo, Letizia Pintomalli, Lucia Russo, Valeria Grasso, Nicola Minuto, Mafalda Mucciolo, Antonio Novelli, Antonella Marucci, Barbara Piccini, Sonia Toni, Francesca Silvestri, Paola Carrera, Andrea Rigamonti, Giulio Frontino, Michela Trada, Davide Tinti, Maurizio Delvecchio, Novella Rapini, Riccardo Schiaffini, Corrado Mammì, Fabrizio Barbetti, and the Diabetes Study Group of ISPED


Transient neonatal diabetes mellitus (TNDM) is caused by activating mutations in ABCC8 and KCNJ11 genes (KATP/TNDM) or by chromosome 6q24 abnormalities (6q24/TNDM). We wanted to assess whether these different genetic aetiologies result in distinct clinical features.


Retrospective analysis of the Italian data set of patients with TNDM.


Clinical features and treatment of 22 KATP/TNDM patients and 12 6q24/TNDM patients were compared.


Fourteen KATP/TNDM probands had a carrier parent with abnormal glucose values, four patients with 6q24 showed macroglossia and/or umbilical hernia. Median age at diabetes onset and birth weight were lower in patients with 6q24 (1 week; −2.27 SD) than those with KATP mutations (4.0 weeks; −1.04 SD) (P = 0.009 and P = 0.007, respectively). Median time to remission was longer in KATP/TNDM than 6q24/TNDM (21.5 weeks vs 12 weeks) (P = 0.002). Two KATP/TNDM patients entered diabetes remission without pharmacological therapy. A proband with the ABCC8/L225P variant previously associated with permanent neonatal diabetes entered 7-year long remission after 1 year of sulfonylurea therapy. Seven diabetic individuals with KATP mutations were successfully treated with sulfonylurea monotherapy; four cases with relapsing 6q24/TNDM were treated with insulin, metformin or combination therapy.


If TNDM is suspected, KATP genes should be analyzed first with the exception of patients with macroglossia and/or umbilical hernia. Remission of diabetes without pharmacological therapy should not preclude genetic analysis. Early treatment with sulfonylurea may induce long-lasting remission of diabetes in patients with KATP mutations associated with PNDM. Adult patients carrying KATP/TNDM mutations respond favourably to sulfonylurea monotherapy.