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Louise M. Prentice, David I. W. Phillips, Deborah Sarsero, Karen Beever, Sandra M. McLachlan and Bernard Rees Smith


In order to determine whether the geographical distribution of autoimmune thyroid disease in Britain is influenced by the pattern of iodine intake, the prevalence of subclinical disease (detectable antithyroid antibodies in biochemically euthyroid individuals) has been measured in female blood donors from seven towns in England and Wales previously characterised in terms of past and present iodine intake. Thyroglobulin antibody and thyroid peroxidase antibody were measured by highly sensitive assays which are based on the direct interaction between antibody and radiolabelled antigen. Excluding cases of overt thyroid disease (biochemically hypo- or hyperthyroid with thyroid antibodies), the overall prevalences of the antibodies in sera from the 698 female blood donors were 17.8% for thyroglobulin antibody and 17.8% for thyroid peroxidase antibody. Both antibodies were found in 12.3% of the female blood donors. In contrast, the prevalences of thyroglobulin antibody and thyroid peroxidase antibody were 41 and 43%, respectively, in the 117 female relatives of 18 probands with autoimmune thyroid disease, but the highest prevalences were observed in groups of women patients with Graves' disease (N = 39) or Hashimoto's disease (N = 39) (51, and 97% for thyroglobulin antibody, respectively, and 72 and 97% for thyroid peroxidase antibody, respectively). Antibody prevalence increased with age in the female blood donors rising from 10.6% at age 18-24 to 30.3% at age 55-64 for thyroglobulin antibody and from 14.9% at age 18-24 to 24.2% at age 55-64 for thyroid peroxidase antibody. Geographical differences in the prevalences of both antibodies were not significant and did not correlate with either the previous goitre prevalence or with current differences in iodine intake. Consequently, it seems unlikely that environmental factors play a major role in the development of subclinical autoimmune thyroid disease in the geographical areas studied.

Open access

Jan Idkowiak, Yasir S Elhassan, Pascoe Mannion, Karen Smith, Rachel Webster, Vrinda Saraff, Timothy G Barrett, Nicholas J Shaw, Nils Krone, Renuka P Dias, Melanie Kershaw, Jeremy M Kirk, Wolfgang Högler, Ruth E Krone, Michael W O’Reilly and Wiebke Arlt


Androgen excess in childhood is a common presentation and may signify sinister underlying pathology. Data describing its patterns and severity are scarce, limiting the information available for clinical decision processes. Here, we examined the differential diagnostic value of serum DHEAS, androstenedione (A4) and testosterone in childhood androgen excess.


Retrospective review of all children undergoing serum androgen measurement at a single center over 5 years.


Serum A4 and testosterone were measured by tandem mass spectrometry and DHEAS by immunoassay. Patients with at least one increased androgen underwent phenotyping by clinical notes review.


In 487 children with simultaneous DHEAS, A4 and testosterone measurements, we identified 199 with androgen excess (140 pre- and 59 post-pubertal). Premature adrenarche (PA) was the most common pre-pubertal diagnosis (61%), characterized by DHEAS excess in 85%, while A4 and testosterone were only increased in 26 and 9% respectively. PCOS was diagnosed in 40% of post-pubertal subjects, presenting equally frequent with isolated excess of DHEAS (29%) or testosterone (25%) or increases in both A4 and testosterone (25%). CAH patients (6%) predominantly had A4 excess (86%); testosterone and DHEAS were increased in 50 and 33% respectively. Concentrations increased above the two-fold upper limit of normal were mostly observed in PA for serum DHEAS (>20-fold in the single case of adrenocortical carcinoma) and in CAH for serum androstenedione.


Patterns and severity of childhood androgen excess provide pointers to the underlying diagnosis and can be used to guide further investigations.