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This paper reviews the outcome in 12 children with hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia who first developed symptoms between the ages of 2 and 8 months and who were treated with diazoxide (5 - 20 mg/kg/day) for 2-13 years. Two cases required subtotal pancreatectomy at the ages of 5 and 10 years because of recurrent hypoglycaemia and one girl with severe retardation died at the age of 6 years while still on diazoxide therapy. Two patients aged 3.5 and 9 years are still on treatment and in 7 cases diazoxide was discontinued between the ages of 2.5 and 14 years, indicating that spontaneous remission can be expected in a high proportion of children with post-neonatal hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia. Of the 9 children who started diazoxide within 3 months of the onset of symptoms, 5 are of normal intelligence and 4 are moderately retarded (IQs 63-71). In 3 children diazoxide was started 8 months to 3 years after the onset of symptoms; two are retarded (IQs 60-70) and the third was severely retarded and died aged 6 years.

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D. B. Dunger, J. R. Seckl, D. B. Grant, L. Yeoman, and S. L. Lightman

Abstract. The value of a 7-h water deprivation test incorporating urinary osmolality and urinary arginine vasopressin (AVP) measurements was investigated in 20 children with suspected anterior or posterior pituitary dysfunction (group A) and 11 presenting with polyuria and polydipsia (group B). A control group of 16 healthy children was also studied. Urinary osmolalities in the control subjects after 7 h of water deprivation were 827–1136 mosmol/kg and urinary AVP 114–320 pmol/l. Of the group A patients, 5 had symptomatic diabetes insipidus with urinary osmolalities < 300 mosmol/kg, and urinary AVP concentrations of < 10 pmol/l, and 5 had normal urinary concentrating ability. The other 10 patients had varying degrees of partial diabetes insipidus (urinary AVP 6–53 pmol/l) although in 3 urinary concentrating ability was well maintained (osmolality 650–747 mosmol/kg). In group B, a diagnosis of compulsive water drinking was made in 9 patients, 1 had nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (urinary osmolality 68 mosmol/kg, AVP 782 pmol/l), and the final patient had transient diabetes insipidus. The test described was easy to perform and well tolerated even in young children. Using this test alone, it was possible to identify patients with partial defects of posterior pituitary function even when urinary concentrating ability was maintained, as well as those with complete cranial diabetes insipidus, nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, and compulsive water drinking.

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Claire L Wood, Michael Cole, Malcolm Donaldson, David B Dunger, Ruth Wood, Niamh Morrison, John N S Matthews, Simon H S Pearce, Timothy D Cheetham, and the British Society for Paediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes (BSPED)


First-line treatment of thyrotoxicosis in young people is thionamide anti-thyroid drug (ATD) in a blocking dose with levothyroxine replacement (block and replace, BR) or in a smaller dose tailored to render the patient euthyroid (dose titration, DT). Our objective was to determine which regimen provides more stable biochemical control.


A multi-centre phase III, open-label randomised trial comparing BR with DT in patients aged 2–17 years with newly diagnosed thyrotoxicosis at 15 UK centres.


Patients were randomised shortly after diagnosis and treated for 3 years. The primary outcome was the percentage of serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels in the reference range between 6 months and 3 years. Secondary outcomes included the proportion of Free thyroxine (FT4) levels in the reference range, adverse event frequency and 4 years outcome (remission/relapse).


Eighty-two patients were randomised, with details on clinical course in 81 (62 Female); 40 were allocated to BR (41 DT). Three withdrew with one ineligible. The mean percentage of serum TSH within reference range was 60.2% in BR and 63.8% in DT patients; adjusted difference 4.3%, 95% CI (−7.8 to 16.4); P = 0.48. Proportions for FT4 were 79.2% in BR and 85.7% in DT patients; adjusted difference 6.8%, (−0.2 to 15.6); P = 0.13. Three patients developed neutropenia – all on BR. 6 BR and 10 DT patients were in remission at 4y.


This randomised trial has shown no evidence to suggest that BR, when managing the young patient with thyrotoxicosis, is associated with improved biochemical stability when compared to DT.