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Free access

Jakob Dal, Ulla Feldt-Rasmussen, Marianne Andersen, Lars Ø Kristensen, Peter Laurberg, Lars Pedersen, Olaf M Dekkers, Henrik Toft Sørensen and Jens Otto L Jørgensen

Design

Valid data on acromegaly incidence, complications and mortality are scarce. The Danish Health Care System enables nationwide studies with complete follow-up and linkage among health-related databases to assess acromegaly incidence, prevalence, complications and mortality in a population-based cohort study.

Method

All incident cases of acromegaly in Denmark (1991–2010) were identified from health registries and validated by chart review. We estimated the annual incidence rate of acromegaly per 106 person-years (py) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). For every patient, 10 persons were sampled from the general population as a comparison cohort. Cox regression and hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were used.

Results

Mean age at diagnosis (48.7 years (CI: 95%: 47.2–50.1)) and annual incidence rate (3.8 cases/106 persons (95% CI: 3.6–4.1)) among the 405 cases remained stable. The prevalence in 2010 was 85 cases/106 persons. The patients were at increased risk of diabetes mellitus (HR: 4.0 (95% CI: 2.7–5.8)), heart failure (HR: 2.5 (95% CI: 1.4–4.5)), venous thromboembolism (HR: 2.3 (95% CI: 1.1–5.0)), sleep apnoea (HR: 11.7 (95% CI: 7.0–19.4)) and arthropathy (HR: 2.1 (95% CI: 1.6–2.6)). The complication risk was also increased before the diagnosis of acromegaly. Overall mortality risk was elevated (HR: 1.3 (95% CI: 1.0–1.7)) but uninfluenced by treatment modality.

Conclusion

(i) The incidence rate and age at diagnosis of acromegaly have been stable over decades, and the prevalence is higher than previously reported. (ii) The risk of complications is very high even before the diagnosis. (iii) Mortality risk remains elevated but uninfluenced by mode of treatment.

Free access

P F Plouin, L Amar, O M Dekkers, M Fassnacht, A P Gimenez-Roqueplo, J W M Lenders, C Lussey-Lepoutre, O Steichen and on behalf of the Guideline Working Group

Phaeochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGLs) are rare neuroendocrine tumours. Standard treatment is surgical resection. Following complete resection of the primary tumour, patients with PPGL are at risk of developing new tumoural events. The present guideline aims to propose standardised clinical care of long-term follow-up in patients operated on for a PPGL. The guideline has been developed by The European Society of Endocrinology and based on the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) principles. We performed a systematic review of the literature and analysed the European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumours (ENS@T) database. The risk of new events persisted in the long term and was higher for patients with genetic or syndromic diseases. Follow-up in the published cohorts and in the ENS@T database was neither standardised nor exhaustive, resulting in a risk of follow-up bias and in low statistical power beyond 10 years after complete surgery. To inform patients and care providers in this context of low-quality evidence, the Guideline Working Group therefore prepared recommendations on the basis of expert consensus. Key recommendations are the following: we recommend that all patients with PPGL be considered for genetic testing; we recommend assaying plasma or urinary metanephrines every year to screen for local or metastatic recurrences or new tumours; and we suggest follow-up for at least 10 years in all patients operated on for a PPGL. High-risk patients (young patients and those with a genetic disease, a large tumour and/or a paraganglioma) should be offered lifelong annual follow-up.

Free access

K M J A Claessen, N M Appelman-Dijkstra, A M Pereira, S D Joustra, R de Mutsert, K B Gast, M den Heijer, J W A Smit, O M Dekkers and N R Biermasz

Background

Adult GH deficiency (GHD) is associated with increased cardiovascular mortality. Recombinant human GH (rhGH) replacement has beneficial short-term metabolic effects. Although these positive effects sustain during longer follow-up, the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MS) remains increased in comparison with population data not adjusted for the higher mean BMI in GHD adults.

Objective

To explore whether middle-aged patients with proposed physiological rhGH replacement have been normalized with respect to MS and its individual components in comparison with the general population, adjusted for age, sex, and BMI.

Methods

One hundred and sixty-one GHD patients (aged 40–70 years) were studied before the start and after 5 years of rhGH replacement, and were compared with 1671 subjects (aged 45–66 years) from the general population (NEO Study).

Results

MS proportion in GHD patients was 41.0% before the start of rhGH suppletion, increasing to 53.4% after 5 years (P=0.007). Despite chronic rhGH replacement, GHD patients had a 1.3-times higher MS proportion than the general population, independently of age, sex, and BMI (95% CI 1.1–1.5, P=0.008). The GHD population showed a different metabolic profile than the general population with similar BMI: an increased risk of hypertriglyceridemia (adjusted prevalence ratio (PR) 2.0, 95% CI 1.7–2.3) and low HDL-C (adjusted PR 1.8, 95% CI 1.5–2.2), but less hyperglycemia (adjusted PR 0.5, 95% CI 0.4–0.7).

Conclusions

Despite 5 years of rhGH replacement, GHD patients still have a different metabolic profile and more frequently MS than the general population. These differences were independent of BMI, and resemble the unfavorable metabolic profile of untreated GHD patients, pointing to question the long-term benefits of rhGH replacement.

Open access

S R Ali, J Bryce, M Cools, M Korbonits, J G Beun, D Taruscio, T Danne, M Dattani, O M Dekkers, A Linglart, I Netchine, A Nordenstrom, A Patocs, L Persani, N Reisch, A Smyth, Z Sumnik, W E Visser, O Hiort, A M Pereira, S F Ahmed and on behalf of Endo-ERN

Objective

To identify cross-border international registries for rare endocrine conditions that are led from Europe and to understand the extent of engagement with these registries within a network of reference centres (RCs) for rare endocrine conditions.

Methods

Database search of international registries and a survey of RCs in the European Reference Network for rare endocrine conditions (Endo-ERN) with an overall response rate of 82%.

Results

Of the 42 conditions with orphacodes currently covered within Endo-ERN, international registries exist for 32 (76%). Of 27 registries identified in the Orphanet and RD-Connect databases, Endo-ERN RCs were aware of 11 (41%). Of 21 registries identified by the RC, RD-Connect and Orphanet did not have a record of 10 (48%). Of the 29 glucose RCs, the awareness and participation rate in an international registry was highest for rare diabetes at 75 and 56% respectively. Of the 37 sex development RCs, the corresponding rates were highest for disorders of sex development at 70 and 52%. Of the 33 adrenal RCs, the rates were highest for adrenocortical tumours at 68 and 43%. Of the 43 pituitary RCs, the rates were highest for pituitary adenomas at 43 and 29%. Of the 31 genetic tumour RCs, the rates were highest for MEN1 at 26 and 9%. For the remaining conditions, awareness and participation in registries was less than 25%.

Conclusion

Although there is a need to develop new registries for rare endocrine conditions, there is a more immediate need to improve the awareness and participation in existing registries.

Restricted access

E B Conemans, L Lodewijk, C B Moelans, G J A Offerhaus, C R C Pieterman, F H Morsink, O M Dekkers, W W de Herder, A R Hermus, A N van der Horst-Schrivers, M L Drent, P H Bisschop, B Havekes, L A A Brosens, K M A Dreijerink, I H M Borel Rinkes, H Th M Timmers, G D Valk and M R Vriens

Objective

Epigenetic changes contribute to pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (PanNET) development. Hypermethylation of promoter DNA as a cause of tumor suppressor gene silencing is a well-established oncogenic mechanism that is potentially reversible and therefore an interesting therapeutic target. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is the most frequent cause of inherited PanNETs. The aim of this study was to determine promoter methylation profiles in MEN1-related PanNETs.

Design and methods

Methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification was used to assess promoter methylation of 56 tumor suppressor genes in MEN1-related (n = 61) and sporadic (n = 34) PanNETs. Differences in cumulative methylation index (CMI), individual methylation percentages and frequency of promoter hypermethylation between subgroups were analyzed.

Results

We found promoter methylation of a large number of potential tumor suppressor genes. CMI (median CMI: 912 vs 876, P = 0.207) was the same in MEN1-related and sporadic PanNETs. We found higher methylation percentages of CASP8 in MEN1-related PanNETs (median: 59% vs 16.5%, P = 0.002). In MEN1-related non-functioning PanNETs, the CMI was higher in larger PanNETs (>2 cm) (median: 969.5 vs 838.5; P = 0.021) and in PanNETs with liver metastases (median: 1036 vs 869; P = 0.013). Hypermethylation of MGMT2 was more frequent in non-functioning PanNETs compared to insulinomas (median: 44.7% vs 8.3%; P = 0.022). Hypermethylation of the Von Hippel–Lindau gene promoter was observed in one MEN1-related PanNET and was associated with loss of protein expression.

Conclusion

Promoter hypermethylation is a frequent event in MEN1-related and sporadic PanNETs. Targeting DNA methylation could be of therapeutic value in MEN1 patients with advanced PanNETs.

Free access

Claus H Gravholt, Niels H Andersen, Gerard S Conway, Olaf M Dekkers, Mitchell E Geffner, Karen O Klein, Angela E Lin, Nelly Mauras, Charmian A Quigley, Karen Rubin, David E Sandberg, Theo C J Sas, Michael Silberbach, Viveca Söderström-Anttila, Kirstine Stochholm, Janielle A van Alfen-van derVelden, Joachim Woelfle, Philippe F Backeljauw and On behalf of the International Turner Syndrome Consensus Group

Turner syndrome affects 25–50 per 100,000 females and can involve multiple organs through all stages of life, necessitating multidisciplinary approach to care. Previous guidelines have highlighted this, but numerous important advances have been noted recently. These advances cover all specialty fields involved in the care of girls and women with TS. This paper is based on an international effort that started with exploratory meetings in 2014 in both Europe and the USA, and culminated with a Consensus Meeting held in Cincinnati, Ohio, USA in July 2016. Prior to this meeting, five groups each addressed important areas in TS care: 1) diagnostic and genetic issues, 2) growth and development during childhood and adolescence, 3) congenital and acquired cardiovascular disease, 4) transition and adult care, and 5) other comorbidities and neurocognitive issues. These groups produced proposals for the present guidelines. Additionally, four pertinent questions were submitted for formal GRADE (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation) evaluation with a separate systematic review of the literature. These four questions related to the efficacy and most optimal treatment of short stature, infertility, hypertension, and hormonal replacement therapy. The guidelines project was initiated by the European Society of Endocrinology and the Pediatric Endocrine Society, in collaboration with the European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology, the Endocrine Society, the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology, the American Heart Association, the Society for Endocrinology, and the European Society of Cardiology. The guideline has been formally endorsed by the European Society of Endocrinology, the Pediatric Endocrine Society, the European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology, the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology and the Endocrine Society. Advocacy groups appointed representatives who participated in pre-meeting discussions and in the consensus meeting.