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Zhen-Jie Tong, Chin-Wei Kuo, Po-Cheng Yen, Chih-Ching Lin, Ming-Tsun Tsai, Shing-Hwa Lu, Yi-Ping Chang, Wen-Sheng Liu, Han-Hsing Tsou, Hsiao-Wei Cheng, and Hsiang-Tsui Wang

Objective

Diabetic nephropathy (DN), also known as diabetic kidney disease (DKD), is a major chronic complication of diabetes and is the most frequent cause of kidney failure globally. A better understanding of the pathophysiology of DN would lead to the development of novel therapeutic options. Acrolein, an α,β-unsaturated aldehyde, is a common dietary and environmental pollutant.

Design

The role of acrolein and the potential protective action of acrolein scavengers in DN were investigated using high-fat diet/ streptozotocin-induced DN mice and in vitro DN cellular models.

Methods

Acrolein-protein conjugates (Acr-PCs) in kidney tissues were examined using immunohistochemistry. Renin–angiotensin system (RAS) and downstream signaling pathways were analyzed using quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot analyses. Acr-PCs in DN patients were analyzed using an established Acr-PC ELISA system.

Results

We found an increase in Acr-PCs in kidney cells using in vivo and in vitro DN models. Hyperglycemia activated the RAS and downstream MAPK pathways, increasing inflammatory cytokines and cellular apoptosis in two human kidney cell lines (HK2 and HEK293). A similar effect was induced by acrolein. Furthermore, acrolein scavengers such as N-acetylcysteine, hydralazine, and carnosine could ameliorate diabetes-induced kidney injury. Clinically, we also found increased Acr-PCs in serum samples or kidney tissues of DKD patients compared to normal volunteers, and the Acr-PCs were negatively correlated with kidney function.

Conclusions

These results together suggest that acrolein plays a role in the pathogenesis of DN and could be a diagnostic marker and effective therapeutic target to ameliorate the development of DN.

Open access

Pia Burman, Jacqueline Trouillas, Marco Losa, Ann McCormack, Stephan Petersenn, Vera Popovic, Marily Theodoropoulou, Gerald Raverot, Olaf M Dekkers, and

Objective

To describe clinical and pathological characteristics and treatment outcomes in a large cohort of aggressive pituitary tumours (APT)/pituitary carcinomas (PC).

Design

Electronic survey August 2020–May 2021.

Results

96% of 171 (121 APT, 50 PC), initially presented as macro/giant tumours, 6 were microadenomas (5 corticotroph). Ninety-seven tumours, initially considered clinically benign, demonstrated aggressive behaviour after 5.5 years (IQR: 2.8–12). Of the patients, 63% were men. Adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)-secreting tumours constituted 30% of the APT/PC, and the gonadotroph subtypes were under-represented. Five out of 13 silent corticotroph tumours and 2/6 silent somatotroph tumours became secreting. Metastases were observed after median 6.3 years (IQR 3.7–12.1) from diagnosis. At the first surgery, the Ki67 index was ≥3% in 74/93 (80%) and ≥10% in 38/93 (41%) tumours. An absolute increase of Ki67 ≥ 10% after median of 6 years from the first surgery occurred in 18/49 examined tumours. Tumours with an aggressive course from outset had higher Ki67, mitotic counts, and p53. Temozolomide treatment in 156/171 patients resulted in complete response in 9.6%, partial response in 30.1%, stable disease in 28.1%, and progressive disease in 32.2% of the patients. Treatment with bevacizumab, immune checkpoint inhibitors, and peptide receptor radionuclide therapy resulted in partial regression in 1/10, 1/6, and 3/11, respectively. Median survival in APT and PC was 17.2 and 11.3 years, respectively. Tumours with Ki67 ≥ 10% and ACTH-secretion were associated with worse prognosis.

Conclusion

APT/PCs exhibit a wide and challenging spectrum of behaviour. Temozolomide is the first-line chemotherapy, and other oncological therapies are emerging. Treatment response continues to be difficult to predict with currently studied biomarkers.

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Wan-Chen Wu, Kang-Yung Peng, Jin-Ying Lu, Chieh-Kai Chan, Chih-Yuan Wang, Fen-Yu Tseng, Wei-Shiung Yang, Yen-Hung Lin, Po-Chih Lin, Ting-Chu Chen, Kuo-How Huang, Jeff S Chueh, and Vin-Cent Wu

Objective

Concurrent autonomous cortisol secretion (ACS) in patients with primary aldosteronism (PA) is being reported more frequently. Several somatic mutations including PRKACA, GNAS, and CTNNB1 were identified in cortisol-producing adenomas (CPAs). The presence of these mutations in unilateral PA (uPA) patients concurrent with ACS (uPA/ACS) is not well known. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of these mutations and their clinical vs pathological characteristics in uPA/ACS.

Design

This is a retrospective cohort study.

Methods

Totally 98 uPA patients from the Taiwan Primary Aldosteronism Investigation registry having overnight 1-mg dexamethasone suppression test (DST) and adrenalectomy from 2016 to 2018 were enrolled. Their adrenal tumors were tested for PRKACA, GNAS, and CTNNB1 mutations.

Results

11 patients had CPA-related mutations (7 PRKACA and 4 GNAS). The patients carrying these mutations had higher post-DST cortisol (5.6 vs 2.6 μg/dL, P = 0.003) and larger adenoma (2.2 ± 0.3 vs 1.9 ± 0.7 cm, P = 0.025). Adenomas with these mutations had a higher prevalence of non-classical uPA (72.7% vs 26.3%, P = 0.014). Numerically, slightly more complete clinical success of uPA patients with these mutations was noticed after adrenalectomy, although it was statistically non-significant. Post-DST cortisol levels, adenoma size >1.9 cm, and the interaction of adenoma size >1.9 cm with potassium level were found to be associated with the presence of these mutations.

Conclusion

Our study showed that CPA-related mutations were detected in 36.7% of uPA/ACS adenomas. The presence of these mutations was associated with higher post-DST cortisol levels, larger adenoma sizes, and a high percentage of non-classical uPA. However, these mutations did not significantly affect the clinical and biochemical outcomes after adrenalectomy of uPA/ACS patients but they showed a better trend.

Free access

Ian R Reid

Fractures occur in about half of older White women, and almost a third of older White men. However, 80% of the older individuals who have fractures do not meet the bone density definition of osteoporosis, suggesting that this definition is not an appropriate threshold for offering treatment. Fracture risk can be estimated based on clinical risk factors with or without bone density. A combination of calculated risk, fracture history, and bone density is used in treatment decisions. Medications available for reducing fracture risk act either to inhibit bone resorption or to promote bone formation. Romosozumab is unique in that it has both activities. Bisphosphonates are the most widely used interventions because of their efficacy, safety, and low cost. Continuous use of oral bisphosphonates for >5 years increases the risk of atypical femoral fractures, so is usually punctuated with drug holidays of 6–24 months. Denosumab is a further potent anti-resorptive agent given as 6-monthly s.c. injections. It is comparable to the bisphosphonates in efficacy and safety but has a rapid offset of effect after discontinuation so must be followed by an alternative drug, usually a bisphosphonate. Teriparatide stimulates both bone formation and resorption, substantially increases spine density, and reduces vertebral and non-vertebral fracture rates, though data for hip fractures are scant. Treatment is usually limited to 18–24 months, followed by the transition to an anti-resorptive. Romosozumab is given as monthly s.c. injections for 1 year, followed by an anti-resorptive. This sequence prevents more fractures than anti-resorptive therapy alone. Because of cost, anabolic drugs are usually reserved for those at very high fracture risk. 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels should be maintained above 30 nmol/L, using supplements if sunlight exposure is limited. Calcium intake has little effect on bone density and fracture risk but should be maintained above 500 mg/day using dietary sources.

Full access

Sofie Hædersdal, Asger Lund, Elisabeth Nielsen-Hannerup, Henrik Maagensen, Julie L Forman, Jens J Holst, Filip K Knop, and Tina Vilsbøll

Objective

Gastrointestinal-mediated glucose disposal (GIGD) during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) reflects the percentage of glucose disposal caused by mechanisms elicited by the oral route of glucose administration. GIGD is reduced in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) due to a reduced incretin effect and possibly also due to inappropriate suppression of glucagon after oral glucose. We investigated the effect of glucagon receptor antagonism on GIGD, the incretin effect and glucose excursions in patients with T2D and controls without diabetes.

Design

A double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled crossover study was conducted.

Methods

Ten patients with T2D and 10 gender-, age- and BMI-matched controls underwent two 50 g OGTTs and 2 isoglycaemic i.v. glucose infusions, succeeding (~10 h) single-dose administration of 100 mg of the glucagon receptor antagonist LY2409021 or placebo, respectively.

Results

Compared to placebo, LY2409021 reduced fasting plasma glucose in patients with T2D and controls. Plasma glucose excursions after oral glucose assessed by baseline-subtracted area under the curve were increased by LY2409021 compared to placebo in both groups, but no effect of LY2409021 on GIGD or the incretin effect was observed. LY2409021 increased fasting glucagon concentrations three-fold compared to placebo concentrations.

Conclusions

Glucagon receptor antagonism with LY2409021 had no effect on the impaired GIGD or the impaired incretin effect in patients with T2D and did also not affect these parameters in the controls. Surprisingly, we observed reduced oral glucose tolerance with LY2409021 which may be specific for this glucagon receptor antagonist.

Open access

Irina Bacila, Neil Richard Lawrence, Sundus Mahdi, Sabah Alvi, Timothy D Cheetham, Elizabeth Crowne, Urmi Das, Mehul Tulsidas Dattani, Justin H Davies, Evelien Gevers, Ruth E Krone, Andreas Kyriakou, Leena Patel, Tabitha Randell, Fiona J Ryan, Brian Keevil, S Faisal Ahmed, and Nils P Krone

Objective

There is limited knowledge on the onset of comorbidities in congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) during childhood. We aimed to establish the health status of children with CAH in the UK.

Design and methods

This cross-sectional multicentre study involved 14 tertiary endocrine UK units, recruiting 101 patients aged 8–18 years with classic 21-hydroxylase deficiency and 83 controls. We analysed demographic, clinical and metabolic data, as well as psychological questionnaires (Strengths and Difficulties (SDQ), Paediatric Quality of Life (PedsQL)).

Results

Patient height SDS in relation to mid-parental height decreased with age, indicating the discrepancy between height achieved and genetic potential height. Bone age was advanced in 40.5% patients, with a mean difference from the chronological age of 1.8 (±2.3) years. Patients were more frequently overweight (27%) or obese (22%) compared to controls (10.8% and 10.8%, respectively, P < 0.001). No consistent relationship between glucocorticoid dose and anthropometric measurements or hormonal biomarkers was detected. A small number of patients had raised total cholesterol (3.0%), low HDL (3.0%), raised LDL (7.0%) and triglycerides (5.0%). SDQ scores were within the ‘high’ and ‘very high’ categories of concern for 16.3% of patients. ‘School functioning’ was the lowest PedsQL scoring dimension with a median (interquartile range) of 70 (55–80), followed by ‘emotional functioning’ with a median of 75 (65–85).

Conclusions

Our results show an increased prevalence of problems with growth and weight gain in CAH children and suggest reduced quality of life. This highlights the urgent need to optimise management and monitoring strategies to improve long-term health outcomes.

Open access

Maria Fleseriu, John Newell-Price, Rosario Pivonello, Akira Shimatsu, Richard J Auchus, Carla Scaroni, Zhanna Belaya, Richard A Feelders, Greisa Vila, Ghislaine Houde, Rama Walia, Miguel Izquierdo, Michael Roughton, Alberto M Pedroncelli, and Beverly M K Biller

Objective

To investigate the long-term efficacy and tolerability of osilodrostat, a potent oral 11β-hydroxylase inhibitor, for treating Cushing’s disease (CD).

Design/methods

A total of 137 adults with CD and mean 24-h urinary free cortisol (mUFC) > 1.5 × upper limit of normal (ULN) received osilodrostat (starting dose 2 mg bid; maximum 30 mg bid) during the prospective, Phase III, 48-week LINC 3 (NCT02180217) core study. Patients benefiting from osilodrostat at week 48 could enter the optional extension (ending when all patients had received ≥ 72 weeks of treatment or discontinued). Efficacy and safety were assessed for all enrolled patients from the core study baseline.

Results

Median osilodrostat exposure from the core study baseline to study end was 130 weeks (range 1–245) and median average dose was 7.4 mg/day (range 0.8–46.6). The reduction in mean mUFC achieved during the core was maintained during the extension and remained ≤ ULN. Of 106 patients, 86 (81%) patients who entered the extension had mUFC ≤ ULN at week 72. Improvements in cardiovascular/metabolic-related parameters, physical manifestations of hypercortisolism (fat pads, central obesity, rubor, striae, and hirsutism in females), and quality of life in the core study were also maintained or improved further during the extension. No new safety signals were reported; 15/137 (10.9%) and 12/106 (11.3%) patients discontinued for adverse events during the core and extension, respectively. Mean testosterone in females decreased towards baseline levels during the extension.

Conclusions

Data from this large, multicentre trial show that long-term treatment with osilodrostat sustains cortisol normalisation alongside clinical benefits in most patients with CD and is well tolerated.

Full access

Nina M T Meyer, Stefan Kabisch, Ulrike Dambeck, Caroline Honsek, Margrit Kemper, Christiana Gerbracht, Ayman M Arafat, Andreas L Birkenfeld, Peter E H Schwarz, Jürgen Machann, Martin A Osterhoff, Martin O Weickert, and Andreas F H Pfeiffer

Objectives

Some individuals develop type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) despite significant metabolic improvements through lifestyle intervention. We tested the hypotheses that insulin growth factor 1 (IGF1) and its binding proteins 1 and 2 predict the onset of T2DM in prediabetes patients and determine the capacity for metabolic regeneration.

Design

We measured fasting serum IGF1, insulin growth factor-binding protein 1 (IGFBP1) and IGFBP2 in three randomized controlled lifestyle intervention trials, covering at least 1 year of intervention period and 1 year of additional follow-up.

Methods

Within a sample of 414 high-risk prediabetes patients (58% women; 28–80 years), we analyzed fasting serum concentrations of IGF1, IGFBP1 and IGFBP2 in relation to diabetes incidence and metabolic parameters over 2 years. Three hundred and forty-five subjects finished the first year of intervention.

Results

The interventions significantly improved body weight (BMI: −3.24%, P < 0.001), liver fat (−36.8%, P < 0.001), insulin sensitivity (IS) (homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance: −6.3%, P < 0.001) and insulin secretion (disposition index: +35%, P < 0.001) in the cohort. Fourteen percent developed T2DM within 2 years. Mean IGFBP1 levels at baseline were lower in prediabetes compared to a healthy population. Also, prediabetes patients with obesity and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease had lower IGFBP1. Those with impaired glucose tolerance had higher IGFBP1 compared to those with only impaired fasting glucose. Baseline IGF1 was lower (122.5 vs 146.6 µg/L) and IGFBP1 was higher (3.32 vs 2.09 µg/L) in subjects who developed T2DM (n = 57), resulting in a significant prediction of diabetes incidence (hazard ratio (HR) IGF1: 0.991 µg/L, P = 0.003; HR IGFBP1: 1.061 µg/L, P = 0.002). This translates into a 20% and 9% difference in T2DM incidence for IGF1 and IGFBP1, respectively. Despite reduced weight, visceral fat and hepatic fat in response to 1 year of lifestyle intervention, those who developed T2DM had not improved insulin sensitivity, glucose tolerance or IGFBP1.

Conclusions

Lower IGF1 and higher IGFBP1 in prediabetes predicted the incidence of T2DM, indicating an impairment of beta-cell function, which explains the unresponsiveness to lifestyle intervention.

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Antoinette D Reichert, Marloes Nies, Wim J E Tissing, Anneke C Muller Kobold, Mariëlle S Klein Hesselink, Adrienne H Brouwers, Bas Havekes, Marry M van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Helena J H van der Pal, John T M Plukker, Hanneke M van Santen, Eleonora P M Corssmit, Romana T Netea-Maier, Robin P Peeters, Eveline W C M van Dam, Johannes G M Burgerhof, Peter van der Meer, Gianni Bocca, and Thera P Links

Background

Pediatric differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) has an excellent prognosis but unknown late effects of treatment. The initial cardiac evaluation showed subclinical diastolic dysfunction in 20% of adult survivors. The objective of this follow-up study was to determine the clinical course of this finding.

Methods

This multicenter study, conducted between 2018 and 2020, re-evaluated survivors after 5 years. The primary endpoint was echocardiographic diastolic cardiac function (depicted by the mean of the early diastolic septal and early diastolic lateral tissue velocity (e’ mean)). Secondary endpoints were other echocardiographic parameters and plasma biomarkers.

Results

Follow-up evaluation was completed in 47 (71.2%) of 66 survivors who had completed their initial evaluation. Of these 47 survivors, 87.2% were women. The median age was 39.8 years (range: 18.8–60.3), and the median follow-up after the initial diagnosis was 23.4 years (range: 10.2–48.8). Between the first and second evaluation, the e’ mean significantly decreased by 2.1 cm/s (s.d. 2.3 cm/s, P < 0.001). The median left ventricular ejection fraction did not significantly change (58.0% vs 59.0%, P= NS). In the best explanatory model of e’ mean, multivariate linear regression analysis showed that BMI and age were significantly associated with e’ mean (β coefficient: −0.169, 95% CI: −0.292; −0.047, P = 0.008 and β coefficient: −0.177, 95% CI: −0.240; −0.113, P < 0.001, respectively).

Conclusions and relevance

In these relatively young survivors of pediatric DTC, diastolic function decreased significantly during 5-year follow-up and is possibly more pronounced than in normal aging. This finding requires further follow-up to assess clinical consequences.