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Lu Zhang, Marco Castellana, Camilla Virili, Anna Crescenzi, Francesco Giorgino, Emanuele Zucca, Luca Ceriani, Franco Cavalli, Luca Giovanella and Pierpaolo Trimboli


Primary thyroid lymphoma (PTL) is a rare malignancy, and its prognosis depends significantly on its early diagnosis. While fine-needle aspiration (FNA) represents the gold standard to identify differentiated thyroid carcinoma, its reliability for the detection of PTL is still unclear. Here, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the diagnostic performance of FNA in PTL.

Research design and methods

A comprehensive literature search of PubMed/MEDLINE and Scopus databases was conducted to retrieve papers reporting histologically proven PTL undergone FNA. The last search was performed in February 2018 without language and time restrictions.


Thirty-two studies describing 593 PTL were included and the pooled FNA sensitivity was 0.48 (95% CI = 0.38–0.58). FNA sensitivity was 0.51 in 20 studies published before 2010 and 0.39 in those published later, 0.50 in six articles with at least 20 cases and 0.44 in nine series enrolled after 2000. This performance was similar in 12 articles including diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (0.54) and those six on marginal zone lymphoma (0.56). Remarkably, FNA sensitivity increased to 0.72 when considering also FNA reports suspicious for PTL reported in 14 articles. Heterogeneity among the series was found. Publication bias was not always detected.


The present meta-analysis demonstrated that FNA has low sensitivity in diagnosing PTL. However, this rate increased when considering also FNA reports suspicious for PTL, which is relevant from a clinical standpoint. This result could support indirectly the use of additional imaging and/or core biopsy when PTL is suspected.

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Marco Castellana, Camilla Virili, Andrea Palermo, Francesco Giorgino, Luca Giovanella and Pierpaolo Trimboli


Despite the improvements in ultrasound (US) and scintigraphy, 10–20% of patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) still have discordant findings. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the safety and the diagnostic performance of US-guided PTH washout (FNA-PTH) in patients with PHPT, a suspected parathyroid lesion on US but negative or equivocal scintigraphy.


The review was registered on PROSPERO (CRD42019124249). PubMed, Scopus, CENTRAL and Web of Science were searched until February 2019. Original articles reporting complications and diagnostic performance of FNA-PTH in biochemically and histopathologically diagnosed PHPT were selected. The risk of bias of included studies was assessed through QUADAS-2. Summary operating points were estimated using a random-effects model.


Out of 2573 retrieved papers, nine cohort studies were included in the review. No major procedure-related complications were found. Pooled sensitivity was 95% (95% CI: 91–98; I 2: = 14%) and positive predictive value was 97% (95% CI: 93–100; I 2: = 39%). There were not enough data for specificity and negative predictive value to perform a meta-analysis. However, pooling results of all lesions, they were estimated to be 83 and 73%, respectively.


In patients with biochemically proven PHPT and discordant imaging, FNA-PTH was a safe and accurate procedure. In this specific setting of patients, FNA-PTH could be used as a rule-in test for minimally invasive parathyroidectomy.