Jae Woong Sull, Hee Jin Kim, Ji Eun Yun, Grace Kim, Eun Jung Park, Soriul Kim, Hee Yeon Lee, and Sun Ha Jee
Adiponectin has been reported as a new risk factor for the development of diabetes. However, it is not clear whether adiponectin levels are associated with family history of diabetes (FHD).
The objective of this study was to measure the independent association of serum adiponectin with FHD in relation to insulin resistance and obesity.
In 2006, a cross-sectional study was conducted in which waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), and serum adiponectin were measured in 5919 healthy Korean men and women. Multiple linear regression models were used to assess the association of serum adiponectin levels with FHD. The population was classified into two groups according to median values for each of the following variables: WC, BMI, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR).
The positive FHD group had higher HOMA-IR and lower adiponectin levels in both men and women than those without FHD. Adiponectin levels were significantly associated with FHD in men and women respectively, after adjusting for age, BMI, and alcohol consumption (P=0.0123 and 0.0004). The relationship between adiponectin and FHD was similar between the high and low insulin resistance, BMI, and WC groups in male non-smokers and in all Korean women.
These results confirm that adiponectin levels are associated with FHD. These data also suggest that the association of serum adiponectin with FHD may be independent of obesity and insulin resistance.
Kyeong Seon Park, Jung Hee Kim, Eu Jeong Ku, A Ram Hong, Min Kyong Moon, Sung Hee Choi, Chan Soo Shin, Sang Wan Kim, and Seong Yeon Kim
Unilateral adrenalectomy is the first-line treatment for aldosterone-producing adenomas (APA). Hyperkalemia after adrenalectomy because of contralateral zona glomerulosa insufficiency has been reported. We investigated clinical risk factors to predict postoperative hyperkalemia in patients with APA undergoing adrenalectomy.
Design and methods
This study was conducted by retrospectively reviewing medical records from 2000 to 2012 at Seoul National University Hospital and two other tertiary centers. Data from 124 patients who underwent adrenalectomy were included. Hyperkalemia was defined as serum potassium >5.5 mmol/l. Clinical preoperative risk factors included age, blood pressure, plasma renin activity (PRA), plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC), serum potassium, serum creatinine, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), the mass size on pathology, and mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonist use.
Out of 124 patients, 13 (10.5%) developed postoperative hyperkalemia. The incidences of transient and persistent hyperkalemia were 3.2 and 7.3% respectively. Preoperative PRA and PAC were not significantly different in postoperative hyperkalemic patients compared with normokalemic patients. Patients with persistent hyperkalemia were older, had a longer duration of hypertension, larger mass size on pathology, and lower GFR (all P<0.05). The incidence of postoperative hyperkalemia was not different between MR antagonist users and non-users.
Older age (≥53 years), longer duration of hypertension (≥9.5 years), larger mass size on pathology (≥1.95 cm), and impaired preoperative renal function (GFR <58.2 ml/min) were associated with prolonged postoperative hyperkalemia in patients with APA. MR antagonist use did not prevent postoperative hyperkalemia.
Sung Hye Kong, Jung Hee Kim, and Chan Soo Shin
To identify radiologic features that correlate with mild autonomous cortisol excess using planar and volumetric analysis.
In the study, 64 patients with overt Cushing syndrome (CS), 59 patients with mild autonomous cortisol excess (MACE), and 64 patients with nonfunctioning adrenal tumors (NFAT) with evaluable CT scans were included. Patients with NFAT and MACE were BMI-matched with those with overt CS. Planar and volumetric analyses of CT scans were performed in DICOM images using OsiriX software.
The mean age was 56.6 ± 1.01 years, and 123 patients (65.1%) were female. In the order of NFAT, MACE, and overt CS, the diameters and volumes of the adenoma increased, while limb widths and volumes of the contralateral adrenal gland decreased. Patients with MACE or overt CS were more likely to have osteoporosis than those with NFAT (P = 0.006), and patients with overt CS were more likely to experience a fragility fracture than those with NFAT or MACE (P = 0.002). Among radiologic features, the limb width of the contralateral adrenal gland correlated with the cortisol level after overnight dexamethasone suppression test (r = −0.583, P < 0.001).
The study showed that the contralateral adrenal limb thinning was a distinctive radiologic feature of autonomous cortisol excess in the planar and volumetric analysis.
Jung Uee Lee, Songmei Huang, Min Hee Lee, Seong Eun Lee, Min Jeong Ryu, Soung Jung Kim, Yong Kyung Kim, Seul Young Kim, Kyong Hye Joung, Jin Man Kim, Minho Shong, and Young Suk Jo
The genetic mutations causing the constitutive activation of MEK/ERK have been regarded as an initiating factor in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). The ERK-specific dual specificity phosphatase 6 (DUSP6) is part of the ERK-dependent transcriptional output. Therefore, the coordinated regulation of the activities of ERK kinases and DUSP6 may need to be reestablished to make new balances in PTC.
To investigate the role of DUSP6 in the regulation of ERK1/2 (MAPK3/1)-dependent transcription, 42 benign neoplasms and 167 PTCs were retrospectively analyzed by immunohistochemistry with dideoxy sequencing to detect BRAF
The expressions of total ERK1/2, DUSP6, c-Fos (FOS), c-Myc (MYC), cyclin D1, and PCNA were markedly increased in PTC compared with those in benign neoplasms. However, phospho-ERK1/2 was detected in only eight (4.8%) cases out of 167 PTC samples. Unexpectedly, the staining intensity and nuclear localization of ERK1/2 were not affected by the presence or absence of the BRAF
V600E mutation. However, the expressions of c-Fos and PCNA were elevated in BRAF
V600E-positive PTC compared with those in BRAF
V600E-negative PTC. Interestingly, the higher staining intensities of DUSP6 were associated with the level of total ERK1/2 expression (P=0.04) and with high-risk biological features such as age (P=0.05), tumor size (P=0.01), and extrathyroidal extension (linear by linear association, P=0.02). In addition, DUSP6 silencing significantly decreased the cell viability and migration rate of FRO cells.
The coordinated upregulation of total ERK1/2 and its phosphatase, DUSP6, is related to bare detection of phospho-ERK1/2 in PTC regardless of BRAF
600E mutation status. A link between DUSP6 expression and high-risk features of PTC suggested that DUSP6 is an important independent factor affecting the signaling pathways in established PTC.
Ji-Hun Choi, Eun-Jung Rhee, Kye-Hyun Kim, Hee-Yeon Woo, Won-Young Lee, and Ki-Chul Sung
Omentin-1 is a novel adipokine that increases insulin sensitivity and is expressed in visceral adipose tissue. The aim of this study was to determine the metabolic parameters that influence plasma omentin-1 levels in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).
Design and methods
A cross-sectional study was performed in 87 women with PCOS and 53 body mass index (BMI)-matched healthy controls including 39 non-obese, normal-weight (NW) PCOS women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and 44 BMI- and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA)-matched controls. Indices of insulin sensitivity, metabolic variables, circulating androgen levels, serum adiponectin, and omentin-1 levels were measured. A 75 g oral glucose tolerance test was performed in all participants.
Plasma omentin-1 levels were significantly lower in women with PCOS compared with those in BMI-matched controls (P<0.001). A significantly lower level of plasma omentin-1 was observed in non-obese women with PCOS and NGT compared with that in BMI- and HOMA-matched controls (P<0.001). Omentin-1 level was negatively correlated with BMI, indices of insulin sensitivity, and circulating androgens and was associated with greater 2 h postprandial glucose, C-peptide, and insulin levels compared with fasting values. Within the NW and NGT groups, omentin-1 levels remained negatively correlated with BMI, 2 h postprandial C-peptide, and circulating androgens and demonstrated a negative linear trend according to quartile of free testosterone (P=0.028).
Plasma levels of omentin-1 were reduced in non-obese women with PCOS and NGT. Postprandial hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia contributed more to lower omentin-1 levels than did fasting values in the setting of PCOS. Increased androgen levels contributed to decreased omentin-1 levels in women with PCOS.
Kwanhoon Jo, Min-Hee Kim, Yejee Lim, So-Lyung Jung, Ja-Seong Bae, Chan-Kwon Jung, Moo-Il Kang, Bong-Yun Cha, and Dong-Jun Lim
Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and measurement of thyroglobulin (Tg) in needle washout (FNA-Tg) are recommended for the diagnosis of metastatic or recurrent lymph nodes (LNs) in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). However, the effect of serum Tg antibody (TgAb) on FNA-Tg levels still remains unclear in the preoperative setting. We analyze the interference of serum TgAb on FNA-Tg levels as proof of concept in the diagnostic advantage of serum TgAb combined with FNA-Tg.
Subjects and methods
A total of 370 suspicious cervical LNs from 273 patients with DTC were included. The primary tumor was confirmed as DTC on preoperative pathology in all patients. We performed FNA-Tg measurement and FNAC on suspicious LNs and evaluated the diagnostic performance of FNAC and FNA-Tg according to TgAb status. Final diagnoses were confirmed by histological examination of excised specimens or by follow-up ultrasonography for at least 6 months.
Data from 273 subjects with suspicious 370 LNs were evaluated. Fifty-five LNs (14.9%) were from TgAb+ positive serum TgAb (TgAb+) patients. Serum Tg and FNA-Tg levels were significantly lower in patients with TgAb+ than in those with TgAb-negative (TgAb−). Final pathology confirmed 109 LNs (29.5%) asmalignant. Diagnostic performance of FNA-Tg at the same cutoff level was lower in the TgAb+ than TgAb− group. FNA-Tg cutoff levels determined by ROC curve were lower in the TgAb+ group.
The results suggested that the cutoff value of FNA-Tg should be lowered in suspicious LN before thyroidectomy in thyroid cancer patients with TgAb.
A Ram Hong, Jung Hee Kim, Kyeong Seon Park, Kyong Young Kim, Ji Hyun Lee, Sung Hye Kong, Seo Young Lee, Chan Soo Shin, Sang Wan Kim, and Seong Yeon Kim
Recently, the European Society of Endocrinology (ESE), in collaboration with the European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumors (ENSAT), asserted that adrenal incidentalomas (AIs) <4 cm and ≤10 Hounsfield units (HU) do not require further follow-up imaging. To validate the clinical application of the follow-up strategies suggested by the 2016 ESE-ENSAT guidelines, we explored the clinical characteristics and natural course of AIs in a single center over 13 years.
Design and methods
This retrospective cohort study included a total of 1149 patients diagnosed with AIs between 2000 and 2013 in a single tertiary center. Hormonal examination and radiological evaluations were performed at the initial diagnosis of AI and during the follow-up according to the appropriate guidelines.
The mean age at diagnosis was 54.2 years, and the majority of AIs (68.0%) were nonfunctional lesions. Receiver operating curve analysis was used to discriminate malignant from benign lesions; the optimal cut-off value for mass size was 3.4 cm (sensitivity: 100%; specificity: 95.0%), and that for the pre-contrast HU was 19.9 (sensitivity: 100%; specificity: 67.4%). The majority of nonfunctional lesions did not change in size during the 4-year follow-up period. Applying a cut-off value of 1.8 μg/dL after a 1-mg overnight dexamethasone suppression test, 28.0% of all nonfunctional AIs progressed to autonomous cortisol secretion during the follow-up period. However, we observed no development of overt Cushing’s syndrome in the study.
We advocate that no follow-up imaging is required if the detected adrenal mass is <4 cm and has clear benign features. However, prospective studies with longer follow-up are needed to confirm the appropriate follow-up strategies.
Jandee Lee, Chan Hee Kim, In Kyung Min, Seonhyang Jeong, Hyunji Kim, Moon Jung Choi, Hyeong Ju Kwon, Sang Geun Jung, and Young Suk Jo
The characteristics of metastatic lymph nodes (MLNs) have been investigated as important predictors of recurrence and progression in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). However, clinically applicable risk stratification systems are limited to the assessment of size and number of MLNs. This study investigated the predictive value of detailed characteristics of MLNs in combination with currently used risk stratification systems.
Design and methods
We retrospectively characterized 2811 MLNs from 9014 harvested LNs of 286 patients with N1 PTC according to the maximum diameter of MLN (MDLN), maximum diameter of metastatic focus (MDMF), ratio of both diameters (MDMFR), lymph node ratio (LNR, number of MLNs/number of total harvested LNs), presence of extranodal extension (ENE), desmoplastic reaction (DR), cystic component, and psammoma body.
Factors related to the size and number of MLNs were associated with increased risk of recurrence and progression. Extensive presence of ENE (>40%) and DR (≥50%) increased the risk of recurrence/progression. The combination of MDLN, LNR, ENE, and DR had the highest predictive value among MLN characteristics. Combination of these parameters with ATA risk stratification or 1-year response to therapy improved the predictive power for recurrence/progression from a Harrell’s C-index of 0.781 to 0.936 and 0.867 to 0.960, respectively.
The combination of currently used risk stratification systems with detailed characterization of MLNs may improve the predictive accuracy for recurrence/progression in N1 PTC patients.
Cheol Ryong Ku, Thierry Brue, Katharina Schilbach, Stanislav Ignatenko, Sandor Magony, Yoon-Sok Chung, Byung-Joon Kim, Kyu Yeon Hur, Ho-Cheol Kang, Jung Hee Kim, Min Seon Kim, Aldona Kowalska, Marek Bolanowski, Marek Ruchala, Svetozar Damjanovic, Juraj Payer, Yun Jung Choi, Su Jin Heo, Tae Kyoung Kim, MinKyu Heo, Joan Lee, and Eun Jig Lee
Hybrid Fc-fused rhGH (GX-H9) is a long-acting recombinant human growth hormone (GH) under clinical development for both adults and children with GH deficiency (GHD). We compared the safety, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of weekly and every other week (EOW) dosages of GX-H9 with those of daily GH administration in adult GHD (AGHD) patients.
This was a randomized, open-label, active-controlled and dose-escalation study conducted in 16 endocrinology centers in Europe and Korea.
Forty-five AGHD patients with or without prior GH treatment were enrolled. Patients with prior GH treatments were required to have received the last GH administration at least 1 month prior to randomization. Subjects were sequentially assigned to treatment groups. Fifteen subjects were enrolled to each treatment group and randomly assigned to receive either GX-H9 or Genotropin (4:1 ratio). GX-H9 dosage regimens for Groups 1, 2 and 3 were 0.1 mg/kg weekly, 0.3 mg/kg EOW and 0.2 mg/kg EOW, respectively. All Genotropin-assigned subjects received 6 µg/kg Genotropin, regardless of treatment group. Main outcome analyses included measurements of serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I), safety, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and immunogenicity.
Mean GX-H9 peak and total exposure increased with an increase in dose after a single-dose administration. The mean IGF-I response was sustained above baseline over the intended dose interval of 168 h for the weekly and 336 h for the EOW GX-H9 groups. Safety profiles and immunogenicity were not different across the treatment groups and with Genotropin.
GX-H9 has the potential for up to twice-monthly administration.
Jae-Min Kim, Jin-Ho Choi, Jung Hyun Lee, Gu-Hwan Kim, Beom Hee Lee, Hae Soon Kim, Jeh-Hoon Shin, Choong-Ho Shin, Chan Jong Kim, Jeesuk Yu, Dae-Yeol Lee, Won Kyoung Cho, Byung-Kyu Suh, Ji Eun Lee, Hye Rim Chung, and Han-Wook Yoo
Steroidogenic acute regulatory (STAR) protein plays a crucial role in steroidogenesis, and mutations in the STAR gene cause congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia (CLAH). This study investigated the STAR mutation spectrum and functionally analyzed a novel STAR mutation in Korean patients with CLAH.
Mutation analysis of STAR was carried out in 25 unrelated Korean CLAH patients. A region of STAR comprising exons 4–7 was cloned from human genomic DNA into an expression vector, followed by site-directed mutagenesis and transient expression in COS7 cells. The splicing pattern was analyzed by in vitro transcription, and each transcript was functionally characterized by measuring pregnenolone production in COS7 cells cotransfected with the cholesterol side chain cleavage system.
Mutation p.Q258X was identified in 46 of 50 alleles (92%); mutation c.653C>T was detected in two alleles (4%); and mutations p.R182H and c.745–6_810del were found in one allele (2%). Reverse transcriptase-PCR products amplified from a patient heterozygous for compound c.653C>T and c.745–6_810del mutation revealed multiple alternatively spliced mRNAs. In vitro expression analysis of a minigene consisting of exons 4–7 containing the c.653C>T yielded two transcripts in which exon 6 or exons 5 and 6 were skipped. The encoded proteins exhibited defective pregnenolone-producing ability. The c.745–6_810del mutation led to full and partial intron retention.
p.Q258X is the most common STAR mutation in Korea. A previously reported c.653C>T variant was found to cause aberrant splicing at the mRNA level, resulting in perturbation of STAR function. The c.745–6_810del mutation also resulted in aberrant splicing.