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Stephanie Burger-Stritt, Annemarie Eff, Marcus Quinkler, Tina Kienitz, Bettina Stamm, Holger S Willenberg, Gesine Meyer, Johannes Klein, Nicole Reisch, Michael Droste, and Stefanie Hahner


Patients with adrenal insufficiency (AI) suffer from impaired quality of life and are at risk of adrenal crisis (AC) despite established replacement therapy. Patient education is regarded an important measure for prevention of AC and improvement of AI management. A standardized education programme was elaborated for patients with chronic AI in Germany.


Longitudinal, prospective, questionnaire-based, multi-centre study.


During 2-h sessions, patients (n = 526) were provided with basic knowledge on AI, equipped with emergency cards and sets and trained in self-injection of hydrocortisone. To evaluate the education programme, patients from eight certified centres completed questionnaires before, immediately after and 6–9 months after training.


399 completed data sets were available for analysis. Questionnaire score-values were significantly higher after patient education, indicating successful knowledge transfer (baseline: 17 ± 7.1 of a maximum score of 29; after training: 23 ± 4.2; P < 0.001), and remained stable over 6–9 months. Female sex, younger age and primary cause of AI were associated with higher baseline scores; after education, age, cause of AI and previous adrenal crisis had a significant main effect on scores. 91% of patients would dare performing self-injection after training, compared to 68% at baseline. An improvement of subjective well-being through participation in the education programme was indicated by 95% of the patients 6–9 months after participation.


Patient group education in chronic AI represents a helpful tool for the guidance of patients, their self-assurance and their knowledge on prevention of adrenal crises. Repeated training and adaptation to specific needs, for example, of older patients is needed.

Open access

Marloes Nies, Bernadette L Dekker, Esther Sulkers, Gea A Huizinga, Mariëlle S Klein Hesselink, Heleen Maurice-Stam, Martha A Grootenhuis, Adrienne H Brouwers, Johannes G M Burgerhof, Eveline W C M van Dam, Bas Havekes, Marry M van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Eleonora P M Corssmit, Leontien C M Kremer, Romana T Netea-Maier, Heleen J H van der Pal, Robin P Peeters, John T M Plukker, Cécile M Ronckers, Hanneke M van Santen, Anouk N A van der Horst-Schrivers, Wim J E Tissing, Gianni Bocca, and Thera P Links


The impact of childhood differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) on psychosocial development has not yet been studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the achievement of psychosocial developmental milestones in long-term survivors of childhood DTC.

Design and methods

Survivors of childhood DTC diagnosed between 1970 and 2013 were included. Reasons for exclusion were age <18 or >35 years at follow-up, a follow-up period <5 years or diagnosis with DTC as a second malignant neoplasm. Survivors gathered peer controls of similar age and sex (n = 30). A comparison group non-affected with cancer (n = 508) and other childhood cancer survivors (CCS) were also used to compare psychosocial development. To assess the achievement of psychosocial milestones (social, autonomy and psychosexual development), the course of life questionnaire (CoLQ) was used.


We included 39 survivors of childhood DTC (response rate 83.0%, mean age at diagnosis 15.6 years, and mean age at evaluation 26.1 years). CoLQ scores did not significantly differ between survivors of childhood DTC and the two non-affected groups. CoLQ scores of childhood DTC survivors were compared to scores of other CCS diagnosed at similar ages (n = 76). DTC survivors scored significantly higher on social development than other CCS, but scores were similar on autonomy and psychosexual developmental scales.


Survivors of childhood DTC showed similar development on social, autonomy, and psychosexual domains compared to non-affected individuals. Social development was slightly more favorable in DTC survivors than in other CCS, but was similar on autonomy and psychosexual domains.