Search Results

You are looking at 101 - 110 of 783 items for

  • Abstract: adolescen* x
  • Abstract: boy* x
  • Abstract: child* x
  • Abstract: neonat* x
  • Abstract: paediatric x
  • Refine by Access: Content accessible to me x
Clear All Modify Search
Free access

S A van Gool, G A Kamp, R J Odink, S M P F de Muinck Keizer-Schrama, H A Delemarre-van de Waal, W Oostdijk, and J M Wit

Objective

To assess the long-term effect of prepubertal high-dose GH treatment on growth in children with idiopathic short stature (ISS).

Design and methods

Forty children with no signs of puberty, age at start 4–8 years (girls) or 4–10 years (boys), height SDS <−2.0 SDS, and birth length >−2.0 SDS, were randomly allocated to receive GH at a dose of 2 mg/m2 per day (equivalent to 75 μg/kg per day at start and 64 μg/kg per day at stop) until the onset of puberty for at least 2 years (preceded by two 3-month periods of treatment with low or intermediate doses of GH separated by two washout periods of 3 months) or no treatment. In 28 cases, adult height (AH) was assessed at a mean (s.d.) age of 20.4 (2.3) years.

Results

GH-treated children (mean treatment period on high-dose GH 2.3 years (range 1.2–5.0 years)) showed an increased mean height SDS at discontinuation of the treatment compared with the controls (−1.3 (0.8) SDS versus −2.6 (0.8) SDS respectively). However, bone maturation was significantly accelerated in the GH-treated group compared with the controls (1.6 (0.4) versus 1.0 (0.2) years per year, respectively), and pubertal onset tended to advance. After an untreated interval of 3–12 years, AH was −2.1 (0.7) and −1.9 (0.6) in the GH-treated and control groups respectively. Age was a positive predictor of adult height gain.

Conclusion

High-dose GH treatment restricted to the prepubertal period in young ISS children augments height gain during treatment, but accelerates bone maturation, resulting in a similar adult height compared with the untreated controls.

Free access

Thomas M K Völkl, Diemud Simm, Antje Körner, Wolfgang Rascher, Wieland Kiess, Jürgen Kratzsch, and Helmuth G Dörr

Objective

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) patients are at a higher risk to develop obesity. The role of leptin in CAH is still controversial. Our study aimed to evaluate serum levels of leptin, the soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R), and the sOB-R: leptin molar ratios in a cohort of CAH children and adolescents, and their associations with clinical and metabolic parameters.

Methods

We studied 51 CAH patients, aged 5.6–19.6 years (median 11.8, n=30 females) cross-sectionally. All patients had genetically proven CAH and received standard steroid substitution therapy. Blood specimens were taken after overnight fasting between 0800 and 1000 h. For the analyses of leptin and sOB-R, matched pairs were built with healthy Caucasian patients for sex, Tanner stage (TS), chronologic age (CA), and body mass index (BMI).

Results

BMI and SDS were significantly elevated compared with the reference population. Leptin levels were not different between matched pairs, whereas sOB-R levels were significantly lower in CAH. Consequently, the sOB-R: leptin molar ratios were significantly decreased in CAH. Correlation analyses in CAH patients revealed significant relationship between leptin and CA, TS, BMI, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. Similar results were obtained for the matched control group. For sOB-R, we found no significant correlation for CA, TS, or BMI in CAH, but we did in the controls. There were significant correlations for androgens within the CAH group. Additional analyses revealed no correlation with steroid medication or metabolic control.

Conclusions

Our data show that an altered leptin axis with normal serum leptin concentrations but decreased sOB-R serum levels may contribute to the increased risk of overweight and obesity in CAH.

Free access

Jing Jin, Lingfeng Cao, Zhuhui Zhao, Shuixian Shen, Wieland Kiess, Dijing Zhi, Rong Ye, Ruoqian Cheng, Lian Chen, Yi Yang, and Feihong Luo

Context

Congenital generalized lipodystrophy (CGL) is a rare and heterogeneous disease of autosomal recessive inheritance. Until now, no genetic findings had been reported in Chinese patients with CGL.

Objective

To analyze Berardinelli-Seip congenital lipodystrophy type 2 (BSCL2) and 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase 2 (AGPAT2) gene variation in a Chinese boy with CGL and his family.

Design, setting, and participants

All exons of BSCL2 and AGPAT2 with adjacent intron–exon junctions were analyzed using direct sequencing.

Main outcome measures

Sequences of each exon and nearby intron of the BSCL2 and AGPAT2 genes of the family members were compared with the gene bank genomic sequences.

Results

DNA sequence analysis of the entire coding regions and surrounding uncoding regions disclosed a novel homozygous G→T mutation at nucleotide 909 in exon 5 of the BSCL2 gene in the affected child. A heterozygous state of the G→T mutation of the BSCL2 gene was also found in other family members. This mutation predicts the substitution of glutamic acid at codon 189 by the stop codon (Glu189X or E189X). No variation was found in the AGPAT2 gene.

Conclusion

E189X is a novel BSCL2 gene mutation that contributes to CGL formation in a family of Chinese origin.

Free access

Christina Holzapfel, Monika Siegrist, Melanie Rank, Helmut Langhof, Harald Grallert, Jens Baumert, Corinna Irimie, Norman Klopp, Bernd Wolfarth, Thomas Illig, Hans Hauner, and Martin Halle

Context

Genome-wide association studies have shown that the melatonin receptor 1B (MTNR1B) gene locus is strongly associated with fasting glucose and β-cell function. However, data are rather limited to the adult population and normal-weight children. So far, little is known whether similar associations are present in overweight and obese children and adolescents.

Objective

The aim is to investigate an MTNR1B polymorphism in a sample of 310 overweight and obese children and adolescents (mean body mass index standard deviation score (BMI-SDS)): 2.74 (±0.55), mean age: 14 (±2) years), who participated in a short-term weight-loss program based on energy reduction, physical activity, and behavior therapy.

Methods

We investigated an association between genotype and fasting glucose, fasting insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and of β-cell function (HOMA-B), and anthropometric parameters and their change during intervention.

Results

The minor G allele of polymorphism rs10830963 was significantly associated with increased fasting glucose (0.205 mmol/l, P<0.0001) and decreased HOMA-B (−0.353, P<0.0001). Categorizing the sample into BMI-SDS groups, these significant associations were abolished in children with BMI-SDS below 2.5 but remained in those with higher BMI-SDS values with stronger β-estimates. The P value for the genotype×BMI-SDS category interaction was 0.012 for fasting glucose and 0.083 for HOMA-B. There was no significant association between genotype and anthropometric parameters and their change during intervention.

Conclusions

This is the first single study, replicating the association between the MTNR1B locus and diabetes-related traits in overweight and obese children and adolescents. The effect sizes in children and adolescents seem to be stronger than in adults and differed among BMI-SDS categories.

Free access

Y Vardizer, A Lupetti, S Vandelanotte, A C Lankester, W M Wiersinga, and L Baldeschi

Objective

For many years, the treatment of X-linked childhood cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy (XALD) consisted of hydrocortisone replacement and a mixture of short chain-fatty acids, known as ‘Lorenzo's oil’. Recently, bone marrow transplantation (BMT) has also been used.

Case report

We report the case of a patient affected by XALD who developed Graves' hyperthyroidism (GH) and Graves' orbitopathy (GO) after BMT and who we could follow-up for 6.5 years afterwards.

Evidence synthesis

A boy affected by XALD was treated at the age of 6 years, with a whole BMT from his sister. One year after BMT, the transplanted patient presented TSH at the lower normal value and 3 years later he developed thyrotoxicosis. After a further 2 years, the patient developed GO, which showed clinical evidence of reactivation 5 years after its onset as a consequence of an attempt to treat thyrotoxicosis by means of I131 (300 MBq). Seven years after BMT, the donor showed alterations of thyroid autoimmunity and 1 year thereafter she developed GH. She never presented GO during a subsequent 5 year follow-up.

Conclusions

This case illustrates that autoimmunity originating from a pre-symptomatic donor can be transferred into the host during allogeneic stem cell transplantation. In cases where autoimmune phenomena are recognized in the donor prior to donation, alternative donors or T-cell manipulation of the graft might be considered.

Free access

Tilman Rohrer, Eva Stierkorb, Sabine Heger, Beate Karges, Klemens Raile, K Otfried Schwab, Reinhard W Holl, and on behalf of the Diabetes-Patienten-Verlaufsdaten (DPV) Initiative

Abstract

Objective

To investigate the effect of type 1 diabetes on pubertal onset and development, and to identify factors potentially affecting puberty, including glycemic control, relative diabetes duration, body mass index standard delta score (BMI SDS), insulin dose, and intensity of insulin therapy.

Research design and methods

Initiated in 1990, the Diabetes-Patienten-Verlaufsdaten (DPV) is an ongoing, prospective longitudinal follow-up program to benchmark the quality of diabetes care provided to, predominantly, pediatric patients. Data collection for this non-interventional audit was carried out at 202 German diabetes treatment centers. Patient recruitment was done by referral, clinic/hospital ascertainment, or self-report. Data were analyzed for subcohorts of 1218–2409 boys and 579–2640 girls from a cohort of 24 385 pediatric type 1 diabetic patients. Selection was based on ethnicity and availability of data on Tanner stage 2, or higher, of genital and pubic hair development (boys) or breast and pubic hair development, and menarche (girls).

Results

Boys showed significant (P<0.05) delay (years) in mean ages at onset of genital development (12.0 (±0.9) years) and pubarche (12.2 (±0.4) years). In girls, mean ages at thelarche (11.4 (±0.5) years), pubarche (11.5 (±0.1) years), and menarche (13.2 (±0.5) years) were significantly delayed compared with the general population. Sexual maturity (Tanner stage 5) was not delayed in either sex. Elevated glycohemoglobin and decreased BMI SDS were associated with significantly delayed pubertal onset, whereas relative diabetes duration and insulin dose were not.

Conclusions

Pubertal onset, but not sexual maturity, is delayed in children with type 1 diabetes. Delay increases with higher glycohemoglobin and lower BMI SDS.

Free access

Susanna Wiegand, Anna Richardt, Thomas Remer, Stefan A Wudy, Jeremy W Tomlinson, Beverly Hughes, Annette Grüters, Paul M Stewart, Christian J Strasburger, and Marcus Quinkler

Objective: The incidence of childhood obesity and type 2 diabetes has reached epidemic proportions. Glucocorticoid excess causes central obesity and diabetes mellitus as seen in Cushing’s syndrome. The 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 enzyme (11β-HSD1) regenerates active cortisol from inactive cortisone. Altered 11β-HSD1 may cause tissue-specific Cushing’s syndrome with central obesity and impaired glucose homeostasis.

Design, patients, and methods: Clinical and laboratory characteristics, and anthropometric measurements were determined in 15 male and 6 female obese pubertal children (aged 12–18 years, Tanner stages 2–5). In addition, analyses of 24-h excretion rates of glucocorticoids were also performed in 21 age-, sex-, and pubertal stage-matched non-obese children using gas chromatographic–mass spectrometric (GC–MS) analysis.

Results: 11β-HSD1 activity (urinary tetrahydrocortisol (THF) + 5α-THF/tetrahydrocortisone (THE) ratio) was lower in obese when compared with non-obese boys. In addition, obese children had a higher total cortisol metabolite excretion than non-obese children. 11β-HSD1 activity was significantly related to age in lean and obese children. Standard deviation score (SDS)-body mass index did not correlate with 11β-HSD1 activity, or with total cortisol metabolite excretion within each group. In obese children, 11β-HSD1 activity and total cortisol metabolite excretion showed no correlation to waist-to-hip ratio, fat mass (percentage of body mass), or the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index.

Conclusions: In conclusion, our findings strongly suggest that 11β-HSD1 activity increases with age, and is reduced in obese boys. In addition, obese children have a higher total cortisol metabolites excretion suggesting a stimulated hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal axis.

Free access

A Hamann, H Munzberg, P Buttron, B Busing, A Hinney, H Mayer, W Siegfried, J Hebebrand, and H Greten

The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma2 (PPARgamma2) is almost uniquely expressed in adipose tissue and is of major importance for fat cell differentiation and lipid metabolism. This study was undertaken to assess whether two missense variants in the PPARgamma2 gene are associated with early-onset obesity. A previously described polymorphism encoding for an amino acid exchange in codon 12 (Pro12Ala) was detected with allele frequencies of 0.13 in 296 markedly obese children and adolescents and 0.14 in 130 lean individuals. A Pro115Gln variant, which had been linked to obesity in Germans in a previous association study, was not detected in any of our obese or lean subjects, who are also of German origin. We conclude from our data that these two variants in the PPARgamma2 gene are unlikely to contribute to the high prevalence of early-onset obesity.

Free access

Ferenc Peter, Conrad Savoy, Hyi-Jeong Ji, Mihaly Juhasz, Martin Bidlingmaier, and Paul Saenger

Objective

LB03002 is a novel, sustained-release recombinant human GH, developed for once-a-week s.c. injection. To evaluate the suitability for long-term GH replacement therapy in children with GH deficiency (GHD), the present study assessed the pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) profiles of LB03002 at three doses.

Study design and patients

The randomised, comparator-controlled, assessor-blinded, phase II study assessed 37 (24 boys, 13 girls) pre-pubertal, GH-naïve children with GHD, in 11 European centres, for PK and PD analyses. GH, IGF1 and IGFBP3 concentrations were measured following the last daily GH dose and the first and 13th once-a-week administration of LB03002 at doses of 0.2, 0.5 or 0.7 mg/kg.

Results

GH C max values after the three doses of LB03002 were increased up to fourfold, with a clear dose proportionality. For each LB03002 dose, GH area under the concentration versus time curve did not increase from the first to 13th (month 3) administration, indicating no accumulation of circulating GH. IGF1 C max showed a progressive increase during LB03002 administration. Conversely, IGFBP3 showed a rapid increase in C max. IGF1 SDS were fully normalised after 3 months of treatment, whereas IGFBP3 SDS were already in the normal range for all the three LB03002 dosages after 1 week.

Conclusions

At the doses used, LB03002 has a suitable profile for long-term treatment to promote growth in children with GHD. The quantitative changes in IGF1 and IGFBP3 indicate adequate stimulation of the IGF system by LB03002 and the pattern of increase is comparable with that seen in GHD children in a standard IGF1 generation test using daily GH.

Free access

Gabriel Á Martos-Moreno, Vicente Barrios, and Jesús Argente

Objectives: To investigate the circulating levels of adiponectin, resistin, interleukin 6 (IL-6), and leptin/receptor ratio in healthy Spanish children throughout the different stages of pubertal development. To analyze the relationship between adipokines and sex steroid level changes during puberty.

Study design: Serum adiponectin, resistin, IL-6 levels, and leptin/receptor ratio were studied in 160 healthy Spanish children grouped according to their pubertal stage (Tanner I, 23 girls and 22 boys; Tanner II, 19 girls and 16 boys; Tanners III and IV, 21 girls and 20 boys; and Tanner V, 20 girls and 19 boys). In addition, circulating levels of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were determined in every subject, and testosterone and estradiol levels in boys and girls respectively.

Results: Adiponectin levels decreased in boys from mid puberty (P < 0.05) to become significantly lower than in girls (P < 0.001), whereas IL-6 decreased in both sexes (P < 0.05). Resistin levels and leptin/receptor ratio showed no differences between sexes or according to pubertal stage, except in adult females, who had the highest levels of both parameters (P < 0.001). Serum IL-6 levels correlated significantly (P < 0.05) with testosterone and estradiol levels (r=−0.37 and −0.42 respectively), whereas estradiol, but not testosterone, correlated with leptin/receptor ratio (r=0.59; P < 0.001). Furthermore, a positive relationship was found between SHBG and adiponectin and IL-6 (P < 0.001 and P < 0.05 respectively). In addition, a direct correlation between leptin/receptor and body mass index was found in both sexes (P < 0.001).

Conclusion: Variations in adipokine profiles throughout pubertal development appear to be related with progression of gonadal function.