Search Results

You are looking at 71 - 80 of 833 items for

  • Abstract: adolescen* x
  • Abstract: boy* x
  • Abstract: child* x
  • Abstract: girl* x
  • Abstract: neonat* x
  • Abstract: paediatric x
  • Refine by Access: Content accessible to me x
Clear All Modify Search
Free access

S Bellone, F Prodam, S Savastio, D Avanzo, A Pagani, L Trovato, G E Walker, G Genoni, and G Bona

Context

Ghrelin is a peptide with multiple functions that circulates in acylated (AG) and unacylated (UAG) forms. However, the role of ghrelin in neonates (NN) remains to be clarified.

Objective

The aim of this study was to determine ghrelin concentrations of the two forms in NN to clarify their biological roles. As such, ghrelin levels at birth were compared with those in later life.

Setting and design

Tertiary Care Center. In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated AG, UAG, AG/UAG ratio, and insulin levels in venous cord blood from NN and in fasted normal weight (NW) and obese (OB) children, both prepubertal and pubertal.

Subjects

We studied 82 NN, 82 NW, and 58 OB children.

Results

AG levels were lower in NN than in NW and OB children (P<0.0001), more specifically the prepubertal NW and OB children (P<0.0001). UAG levels were higher in NN than in NW and OB children (P<0.0001). Therefore, the AG/UAG ratio was lower in NN than in NW and OB children (P<0.0001). NN showed insulin levels similar to NW and lower than OB children (P<0.0001). At birth UAG was positively correlated with AG (Pearson: 0.425; P<0.0001) and negatively with insulin (−0.253; P<0.02). In NW and OB, UAG and AG were positively correlated to each other and negatively correlated with insulin and body mass index (−0.566; P<0.0001).

Conclusions

NN compared with children, showed higher UAG and lower AG levels. The AG/UAG ratio showed a very different profile in NN, being lower than in NW and OB children, thus suggesting a different metabolic function for the two forms in NN. Further studies are needed to clarify the exact role of the different ghrelin forms in NN.

Free access

L Kostalova, L Leskova, A Kapellerova, and V Strbak

OBJECTIVE: The aim was to investigate the relationship between body mass index (BMI), plasma leptin, glucose, insulin and C-peptide levels in the offspring of diabetic mothers (DM) and non-diabetic healthy mothers (HM). DESIGN: Seventy-two offspring (37 girls and 35 boys, age 4-20 years) of DM were investigated in a prospective study. Those 14-16 years old (Tanner stage II-IV) were compared with age-matched offspring of HM (33 girls and 33 boys). RESULTS: BMI strongly correlated with plasma leptin concentration in the offspring of both DM and HM children. There were higher BMI and plasma leptin and glucose levels in DM than in HM children. There was no difference in plasma insulin or C-peptide levels between HM and age-matched DM children. There was a highly significant positive correlation between plasma leptin and C-peptide in boys of DM. CONCLUSIONS: The higher plasma leptin found in the offspring of DM reflects their higher BMI. A moderately high but still normal glycemia might be a preclinical sign of insulin resistance or other disturbance of glucoregulation.

Free access

C Ankarberg-Lindgren, J Dahlgren, B Carlsson, S Rosberg, L Carlsson, KA Wikland, and E Norjavaara

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the levels and diurnal rhythm of serum leptin in healthy children, and to investigate the association between leptin levels and sex steroids. METHODS: Four girls and four boys, all healthy volunteers, were followed longitudinally throughout puberty. Their chronological ages ranged from 8.7 to 19.5 years, and body composition, expressed as weight-for-height standard deviation scores (SDS), ranged between -1.7 and +2.4. Serum leptin, oestradiol and testosterone concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay at 1000, 1400, 1800, 2200, 0200 and 0600 h. RESULTS: In all girls and boys, both prepubertally and during pubertal development, serum leptin levels increased during the night, with no difference in relative peak amplitude. In boys, the leptin concentrations increased until the initiation of puberty and then declined, whereas in girls, the concentrations increased throughout puberty. The inter-individual variation in mean leptin levels among girls decreased to 11% at the time of menarche. A positive correlation was found for both oestradiol and testosterone versus leptin in girls throughout puberty (r=0.64 and r=0.71 respectively, P<0.001). A negative correlation was found between leptin and testosterone in boys in mid- and late puberty (r=-0.66, P<0.01). No correlation was found between oestradiol and leptin in boys or between testosterone and leptin in pre- and early pubertal boys. CONCLUSION: Serum leptin concentrations show diurnal variation throughout pubertal development in both girls and boys. The changes in leptin levels during puberty follow a gender-specific pattern, probably due to an influence of sex steroids on leptin production.

Free access

Nicoletta Bisacchi, Milva Orquidea Bal, Laura Nardi, Ilaria Bettocchi, Graziana D'Addabbo, Veronica Conti, Sara Monti, Franco D'Alberton, Alessandro Cicognani, and Alessandra Cassio

Objective

To compare the psychological adjustment and behaviour of congenital hypothyroidism (CH) children and their parents with a control group.

Study design

A cross-sectional study was carried out with 84 CH subjects diagnosed by neonatal screening (range 2.7–18.6 years), subdivided into four age groups: group 1 (2–5 years); group 2 (6–10 years); group 3 (11–13 years); and group 4 (14–18 years) and was compared with an age-matched control group. Patients were assessed using two questionnaires: Child Behaviour Checklist for parents and Youth Self-Report for children over 11 years of age.

Results

In groups 1, 3 and 4, total score (TS), internalising score (IS=problems within the self) and externalising score (ES=conflicts with other people) as reported by parents were not significantly different in CH patients and in controls. In group 2, parents of CH children showed values of TS (P<0.05), IS (P<0.05), ES (P<0.05) and scores on other scales significantly higher than controls. In self-reports of groups 3 and 4, the behavioural scales were not significantly different in CH patients and in controls.

Conclusions

Paediatricians should be informed about the increased risk of the development of behavioural problems at primary school age in CH patients. At this age special attention should be paid to parental worries and anxiety. However, it can be reassuring for the patients and parents to know that the problems may be related to CH, and that they may spontaneously disappear.

Free access

D Zenaty, Y Aigrain, M Peuchmaur, P Philippe-Chomette, C Baumann, F Cornelis, J P Hugot, D Chevenne, V Barbu, P J Guillausseau, M Schlumberger, J C Carel, J P Travagli, and J Léger

Context

Early prophylactic thyroidectomy in patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type 2 offers the best chance for a normal life expectancy.

Objective

To analyze the results of thyroidectomy performed during the first year of life in six patients with MEN 2A (codon 634) or MEN 2B (codon 918) syndrome.

Design and setting

A university hospital-based prospective study from 2001 to 2008.

Subjects and methods

Six family members affected either by MEN 2A (n=3) or MEN 2B (n=3) syndrome were identified through neonatal genetic screening.

Results

Total thyroidectomy was performed at a median age of 0.8 year in the six patients, with central lymph node dissection in five. Bilateral millimetric medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) was found in all patients, with a unilateral lymph node micrometastasis in two of the three MEN 2B patients. Before thyroidectomy, MEN 2B patients had much higher basal serum calcitonin levels than those with MEN 2A and controls. After thyroidectomy, with a median follow-up of 3.3 years, the six patients had no evidence of persistent MTC.

Conclusion

Bilateral millimetric MTC may be present during the first year of life in these patients, with lymph node metastases also occurring in MEN 2B patients. These results support a total thyroidectomy at the age of about one year in MEN 2A (codon 634) children with an abnormal serum calcitonin level, and a total thyroidectomy with central neck dissection within the first weeks of life in MEN 2B patients.

Free access

F Rutters, A G Nieuwenhuizen, S P M Verhoef, S G T Lemmens, N Vogels, and M S Westerterp-Plantenga

Objective

To investigate the relationship between leptin concentrations, gonadotropic hormone concentrations, and body composition during puberty in a Dutch children cohort.

Design

In a cohort of 98 children, we determined anthropometric measurements, body composition, and concentrations of leptin, FSH, and LH.

Results

Sex differences were observed from Tanner stage 1 onwards in weight, body fat percentage, and leptin/fat mass ratio. In boys and girls, the relationship between leptin concentrations and FM was weaker at Tanner stage 2 (R 2=0.33 and R 2=0.39; P<0.001), 3 (R 2=0.27 and R 2=0.36; P<0.002), and 4 (R 2=0.21 and R 2=0.28; P<0.03) than at Tanner stage 1 (R 2=0.51 and R 2=0.67; P<0.001) and 5 (R 2=0.46 and R 2=0.78; P<0.01). In girls, a peak in leptin concentrations (8.5±6.0 ng/ml) preceded a peak in LH and FSH concentrations (15.1±3.5 and 5.0±4.5 IU/l). A lead/lag relationship was observed of leptin at Tanner stage 1 to LH and FSH at Tanner stage 2 (R 2=0.12, P<0.05 and R 2=0.18, P<0.05). In boys, there was no peak in leptin, LH, and FSH; additionally, leptin at Tanner stage 3 was related FSH at Tanner stage 4 (R 2=0.17, P<0.04).

Conclusion

In boys and girls during puberty, factors independent of fat mass become (transiently) more important in the regulation of plasma leptin concentrations. Moreover, in girls, leptin is suggested to act as a permissive factor for the onset of puberty, while, in boys, leptin has a different timing and possibly different function.

Open access

Catherine Peters and Nadia Schoenmakers

Transient congenital hypothyroidism (TCH) refers to congenital hypothyroidism which spontaneously resolves in the first few months or years of life. Currently, there is a paucity of reliable markers predicting TCH at diagnosis, and the diagnosis is established following withdrawal of levothyroxine therapy around 3 years of age. The incidence of TCH is increasing, and it is a major contributor to the overall increase in incidence of CH in recent studies. Both genetic factors, in particular mutations affecting DUOX2 and DUOXA2, and environmental factors, e.g iodine deficiency and excess, anti- TSHR antibodies and exposure to anti-thyroid or iodine-rich medications may cause TCH. Resolution of TCH in childhood may reflect both normal thyroid physiology (decreased thyroid hormone biosynthesis requirements after the neonatal period) and clearance or cessation of environmental precipitants. The relative contributions and interactions of genetic and environmental factors to TCH, and the extent to which TCH may be prevented, require evaluation in future population-based studies.

Free access

Juliane Léger, Isabelle Mercat, Corinne Alberti, Didier Chevenne, Priscilla Armoogum, Jean Tichet, and Paul Czernichow

Abstract

Context

There is evidence to suggest that IGF-I plays a role in regulating bone turnover.

Objective

To evaluate the relationships between serum concentrations of IGF-I and IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), and bone metabolism markers in healthy children.

Design and setting

Prospective cross-sectional study.

Subjects and methods

A cohort of 579 boys and 540 girls, all healthy Caucasian, were included in this study. Serum IGF-I and IGFBP-3 concentrations, bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP) and CrossLaps (markers of bone formation and bone resorption respectively) levels were evaluated as a function of age, gender, pubertal stage and body mass index.

Results

Serum IGF-I SDS levels were positively correlated with BAP and CrossLaps SDS levels before and after puberty, and also with CrossLaps during puberty (weak correlation). Serum IGFBP-3 SDS levels were positively correlated with BAP and CrossLaps levels before, during (weak correlation) and after puberty (for BAP levels only).

Conclusions

This study demonstrated the independent association between serum IGF-I and IGFBP-3 concentrations with both serum bone formation and resorption markers in healthy children. Physiological differences before, during and after puberty in the association of serum IGF-I and IGFBP-3 levels with the serum bone metabolism markers were found. These differences may be related to differences in interactions between sex steroid hormones and the GH/IGF-I system, bone metabolism and growth during the pubertal transition. Improvements in our understanding of life course determinants of the IGF-I system and bone metabolism are required to shed further light on the role of the GH/IGF-I axis in bone remodelling.

Free access

Katarina Sedej, Primož Kotnik, Magdalena Avbelj Stefanija, Urh Grošelj, Andreja Širca Čampa, Lara Lusa, Tadej Battelino, and Nataša Bratina

Background

Overweight/obesity in children is a worldwide public health problem. Together with hypercholesterolaemia they are associated with early atherosclerotic complications.

Objectives

In this study, we aimed to investigate the anthropometric characteristics and total cholesterol (TC) levels in a population of 5-year-old children, to determine trends in the prevalence of overweight/obesity and hypercholesterolaemia in 5-year-old children over a period of 8 years (2001–2009) and to assess the impact of modified national nutritional guidelines for kindergartens implemented in 2005.

Design

Cross-sectional studies of overweight/obesity prevalence in the years 2001, 2003–2005 and 2009, and hypercholesterolaemia in years 2001 and 2009, in 5-year-old children.

Subjects

Altogether, 12 832 (6308 girls/6524 boys) children were included.

Methods

Overweight/obesity was defined by IOTF criteria. Hypercholesterolaemia was defined by TC level >5 mmol/l. Multivariable logistic regression models were used.

Results

No correlation between BMI values and TC levels was found. Overweight and obesity prevalence were stabilised from 2001 to 2009 (odds ratio (OR) (95% CI): 1.13 (0.99–1.3) and 1.13 (0.89–1.42) respectively). Girls were more frequently overweight/obese than boys (OR (95% CI): 0.71 (0.65–0.79) and 0.75 (0.64–0.89) respectively). Prevalence of hypercholesterolaemia significantly decreased from 2001 to 2009 (OR (95% CI): 0.47 (0.41–0.55)). It was less frequent in boys than in girls (OR (95% CI): O.7 (0.61–0.8)).

Conclusions

This is the first study to describe a negative trend in the prevalence of hypercholesterolaemia in pre-pubertal children. In addition, the prevalence of overweight/obesity in these children has been stabilised. Nationwide changes in public health policies could have influenced these observations.

Free access

T Meissner, U Wendel, P Burgard, S Schaetzle, and E Mayatepek

BACKGROUND: The term congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI) comprises a group of different genetic disorders with the common finding of recurrent episodes of hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical presentation, diagnostic criteria, treatment and long-term follow-up in a large cohort of CHI patients. PATIENTS: The data from 114 patients from different hospitals were obtained by a detailed questionnaire. Patients presented neonatally (65%), during infancy (28%) or during childhood (7%). RESULTS: In 20 of 74 (27%) patients with neonatal onset birth weight was greatly increased (group with standard deviation scores (SDS) >2.0) with a mean SDS of 3.2. Twenty-nine percent of neonatal-onset vs 69% of infancy/childhood-onset patients responded to diazoxide and diet or to a carbohydrate-enriched diet alone. Therefore, we observed a high rate of pancreatic surgery performed in the neonatal-onset group (70%) compared with the infancy/childhood-onset group (28%). Partial (3%), subtotal (37%) or near total (15%) pancreatectomy was performed. After pancreatic surgery there appeared a high risk of persistent hypoglycemia (40%). Immediately post-surgery or with a latency of several Years insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus was observed in operated patients (27%). General outcome was poor with a high degree of psychomotor or mental retardation (44%) or epilepsy (25%). An unfavorable outcome correlated with infancy-onset manifestation (chi(2)=6.1, P=0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The high degree of developmental delay, in particular in infancy-onset patients emphasizes the need for a change in treatment strategies to improve the unfavorable outcome. Evaluation of treatment alternatives should take the high risk of developing diabetes mellitus into account.