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Free access

Gabriel Á Martos-Moreno, Vicente Barrios, and Jesús Argente

Objectives: To investigate the circulating levels of adiponectin, resistin, interleukin 6 (IL-6), and leptin/receptor ratio in healthy Spanish children throughout the different stages of pubertal development. To analyze the relationship between adipokines and sex steroid level changes during puberty.

Study design: Serum adiponectin, resistin, IL-6 levels, and leptin/receptor ratio were studied in 160 healthy Spanish children grouped according to their pubertal stage (Tanner I, 23 girls and 22 boys; Tanner II, 19 girls and 16 boys; Tanners III and IV, 21 girls and 20 boys; and Tanner V, 20 girls and 19 boys). In addition, circulating levels of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were determined in every subject, and testosterone and estradiol levels in boys and girls respectively.

Results: Adiponectin levels decreased in boys from mid puberty (P < 0.05) to become significantly lower than in girls (P < 0.001), whereas IL-6 decreased in both sexes (P < 0.05). Resistin levels and leptin/receptor ratio showed no differences between sexes or according to pubertal stage, except in adult females, who had the highest levels of both parameters (P < 0.001). Serum IL-6 levels correlated significantly (P < 0.05) with testosterone and estradiol levels (r=−0.37 and −0.42 respectively), whereas estradiol, but not testosterone, correlated with leptin/receptor ratio (r=0.59; P < 0.001). Furthermore, a positive relationship was found between SHBG and adiponectin and IL-6 (P < 0.001 and P < 0.05 respectively). In addition, a direct correlation between leptin/receptor and body mass index was found in both sexes (P < 0.001).

Conclusion: Variations in adipokine profiles throughout pubertal development appear to be related with progression of gonadal function.

Free access

Nicoletta Bisacchi, Milva Orquidea Bal, Laura Nardi, Ilaria Bettocchi, Graziana D'Addabbo, Veronica Conti, Sara Monti, Franco D'Alberton, Alessandro Cicognani, and Alessandra Cassio

Objective

To compare the psychological adjustment and behaviour of congenital hypothyroidism (CH) children and their parents with a control group.

Study design

A cross-sectional study was carried out with 84 CH subjects diagnosed by neonatal screening (range 2.7–18.6 years), subdivided into four age groups: group 1 (2–5 years); group 2 (6–10 years); group 3 (11–13 years); and group 4 (14–18 years) and was compared with an age-matched control group. Patients were assessed using two questionnaires: Child Behaviour Checklist for parents and Youth Self-Report for children over 11 years of age.

Results

In groups 1, 3 and 4, total score (TS), internalising score (IS=problems within the self) and externalising score (ES=conflicts with other people) as reported by parents were not significantly different in CH patients and in controls. In group 2, parents of CH children showed values of TS (P<0.05), IS (P<0.05), ES (P<0.05) and scores on other scales significantly higher than controls. In self-reports of groups 3 and 4, the behavioural scales were not significantly different in CH patients and in controls.

Conclusions

Paediatricians should be informed about the increased risk of the development of behavioural problems at primary school age in CH patients. At this age special attention should be paid to parental worries and anxiety. However, it can be reassuring for the patients and parents to know that the problems may be related to CH, and that they may spontaneously disappear.

Free access

T Meissner, U Wendel, P Burgard, S Schaetzle, and E Mayatepek

BACKGROUND: The term congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI) comprises a group of different genetic disorders with the common finding of recurrent episodes of hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical presentation, diagnostic criteria, treatment and long-term follow-up in a large cohort of CHI patients. PATIENTS: The data from 114 patients from different hospitals were obtained by a detailed questionnaire. Patients presented neonatally (65%), during infancy (28%) or during childhood (7%). RESULTS: In 20 of 74 (27%) patients with neonatal onset birth weight was greatly increased (group with standard deviation scores (SDS) >2.0) with a mean SDS of 3.2. Twenty-nine percent of neonatal-onset vs 69% of infancy/childhood-onset patients responded to diazoxide and diet or to a carbohydrate-enriched diet alone. Therefore, we observed a high rate of pancreatic surgery performed in the neonatal-onset group (70%) compared with the infancy/childhood-onset group (28%). Partial (3%), subtotal (37%) or near total (15%) pancreatectomy was performed. After pancreatic surgery there appeared a high risk of persistent hypoglycemia (40%). Immediately post-surgery or with a latency of several Years insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus was observed in operated patients (27%). General outcome was poor with a high degree of psychomotor or mental retardation (44%) or epilepsy (25%). An unfavorable outcome correlated with infancy-onset manifestation (chi(2)=6.1, P=0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The high degree of developmental delay, in particular in infancy-onset patients emphasizes the need for a change in treatment strategies to improve the unfavorable outcome. Evaluation of treatment alternatives should take the high risk of developing diabetes mellitus into account.

Free access

LA Metherell, MO Savage, M Dattani, J Walker, PE Clayton, IS Farooqi, and AJ Clark

OBJECTIVE: Congenital isolated ACTH deficiency (IAD) is a rare inherited disorder that is clinically and genetically heterogeneous. Patients are characterised by low or absent cortisol production secondary to low plasma ACTH despite normal secretion of other pituitary hormones and the absence of structural pituitary defects. Onset may occur in the neonatal period, but may first be observed in later childhood. Recently, mutations in the TPIT gene, a T-box factor selectively expressed in developing corticotroph cells, have been found in cases of early-onset IAD. DESIGN: Here we report the screening of the TPIT gene in seven patients with IAD, four of whom had neonatal onset. METHODS: Genomic DNA was extracted and the sequences of the 8 TPIT exons and their intron/exon junctions were determined by automated sequencing. RESULTS: Two siblings with early-onset IAD were both compound heterozygotes for mutations in exons 2 and 6. The missense mutation (Met86Arg) in exon 2 within the T-box (or DNA binding domain) is predicted to disrupt DNA binding. A frameshift mutation in exon 6 (782delA) introduces a premature stop codon and is likely to lead to a non-functional truncated protein. No nucleotide changes were observed in exonic sequences in the other two early- or the three later-onset cases. Fifteen single nucleotide polymorphisms that were not predicted to change the TPIT transcript were also detected. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide a further illustration of the genetic heterogeneity of IAD and are highly suggestive of one or more other genes being implicated in this disorder.

Free access

P Dimitri, J T Warner, J A L Minton, A M Patch, S Ellard, A T Hattersley, S Barr, D Hawkes, J K Wales, and J W Gregory

Introduction

Mutations in the GLI-similar 3 (GLIS3) gene encoding the transcription factor GLIS3 are a rare cause of neonatal diabetes and congenital hypothyroidism with six affected cases from three families reported to date. Additional features, described previously, include congenital glaucoma, hepatic fibrosis, polycystic kidneys, developmental delay and facial dysmorphism.

Subjects

We report two new cases from unrelated families with distinct novel homozygous partial GLIS3 deletions. Both patients presented with neonatal diabetes mellitus, severe resistant hypothyroidism in the presence of elevated thyroglobulin and normal thyroid anatomy, degenerative liver disease, cystic renal dysplasia, recurrent infections and facial dysmorphism. These novel mutations have also resulted in osteopenia, bilateral sensorineural deafness and pancreatic exocrine insufficiency, features that have not previously been associated with GLIS3 mutations. Gene dosage analysis showed that the parents were carriers of a deletion encompassing exons 1–2 (case 1) or exons 1–4 (case 2) of the 11 exon gene. Genome-wide SNP analysis did not reveal a common ancestral GLIS3 haplotype in patient 2.

Conclusions

Our results confirm partial gene deletions as the most common type of GLIS3 mutations, accounting for four of five families identified to date. We propose that mutations in GLIS3 lead to a wider clinical phenotype than previously recognised. We also report the first case of a recessive GLIS3 mutation causing neonatal diabetes and congenital hypothyroidism in a child from a non-consanguineous pedigree, highlighting the importance of molecular genetic testing in any patient with this phenotype.

Free access

Margaret Cristina da Silva Boguszewski and Adriane de Andre Cardoso-Demartini

Approximately 15 million babies are born preterm across the world every year, with less than 37 completed weeks of gestation. Survival rates increased during the last decades with the improvement of neonatal care. With premature birth, babies are deprived of the intense intrauterine growth phase, and postnatal growth failure might occur. Some children born prematurely will remain short at later ages and adult life. The risk of short stature increases if the child is also born small for gestational age. In this review, the effects of being born preterm on childhood growth and adult height and the hormonal abnormalities possibly associated with growth restriction are discussed, followed by a review of current information on growth hormone treatment for those who remain with short stature during infancy and childhood.

Free access

S Bargagna, D Dinetti, A Pinchera, M Marcheschi, L Montanelli, S Presciuttini, and L Chiovato

OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of school attainments in children with congenital hypothyroidism (CH) detected by neonatal screening and treated early in life. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Text comprehension, mathematics, reading, writing and verbal and spatial memory, as indices of school learning, were evaluated in nineteen 5- to 10-year-old children with CH attending nursery or elementary school. l-Thyroxine substitution (starting dose 8-10 microg/kg body weight per day) was initiated at a mean age of 30+/-10 days of life. The control group included 298 unaffected children matched with the CH children for age and school grade. Thirty per cent of controls were classmates of CH children. Intelligence quotients (IQ), language performances and motor development were evaluated in CH children at age 5 years, and were related to their school attainments. School performances of CH children were also compared with their neonatal serum thyroxine (T4) concentration, and with the social-cultural level of the family. RESULTS: Four out of 19 (21%) children with CH, 3 in the nursery and 1 in the elementary school, displayed a generalized learning disorder. Symbol copy, geometric copy, phrase repetition, dictation writing and spontaneous writing were particularly defective in nursery school CH children, while orthographic error recognition was defective in elementary school CH children. School learning disorders in CH children were significantly correlated with a borderline-low IQ, poor language performances and a low social-cultural level of the family, but not with motor skills or neonatal T4 concentration. CONCLUSION: School attainments of early treated CH children were within the normal range in most affected cases. However, about 20% of CH children, most of them attending nursery school, showed a generalized learning disorder. Low IQ scores and poor language performances at age 5 years were associated with defective learning, mainly in CH children living in a poor social-cultural environment. In this subset of CH children, prompt initiation of speech and psychomotor rehabilitation therapy is recommended in order to prevent subsequent school learning disorders.

Free access

Jean-Claude Carel, Joëlle Blumberg, Christine Seymour, Catherine Adamsbaum, and Najiba Lahlou

Group-author : for the Triptorelin 3-month CPP Study Group

Objective: Depot GnRH agonists are commonly used in the treatment of central precocious puberty (CPP). The triptorelin 11.25 mg 3-month depot, currently used in adult indications, had not previously been evaluated in CPP.

Design: This was a multicenter, open-label, 12 month trial conducted in 64 CPP children (54 girls and 10 boys), treated quarterly.

Methods: Children with a clinical onset of pubertal development before the age of 8 years (girls) or 9 years (boys), pubertal response of LH to GnRH ≥7 IU/l, advanced bone age >1 year, enlarged uterus (≥36 mm) and testosterone level ≥0.5 ng/ml (boys), were included. Suppression of gonadotropic activation, as determined from serum LH, FSH, estradiol or testosterone, and pubertal signs were assessed at Months 3, 6 and 12.

Results: GnRH-stimulated peak LH ≤3 IU/l, the main efficacy criterion, was met in 53 out of 62 (85%), 60 out of 62 (97%) and 56 out of 59 (95%) of the children at Months 3, 6 and 12 respectively. Serum FSH and sex steroids were also significantly reduced, while pubertal development regressed in most patients. Mean residual triptorelin levels were stable from Month 3 through to Month 12. The triptorelin 3-month depot was well tolerated. Severe injection pain was experienced in only one instance. Five girls experienced mild-to-moderate or severe (one girl) withdrawal bleeding.

Conclusions: The triptorelin 3-month depot efficiently suppresses the pituitary–gonadal axis and pubertal development in children with CPP. This formulation allows a 3-fold reduction, over the once-a-month depot, in the number of i.m. injections required each year.

Free access

Anna G Angelousi, Drosos E Karageorgopoulos, Anastasios M Kapaskelis, and Matthew E Falagas

Abstract

Introduction

The severity of critical illness is associated with various patterns of thyroid hormone abnormalities. We sought to evaluate whether the outcome of patients with, specifically, sepsis or septic shock is associated with the thyroid function tests evaluated at diagnosis or admission in the intensive care unit (ICU).

Methods

We performed a systematic review of relevant studies by searching PubMed.

Results

We included nine studies that all had a prospective cohort design. Seven involved children or neonates, and two involved adults. Mortality was the outcome evaluated in eight studies, while the length of ICU stay was evaluated in the remaining study. In univariate analysis, six of the nine included studies showed that either, free or total, triiodothyronine or thyroxine was lower in the group of patients with sepsis or septic shock who had unfavorable outcome than in those who had favorable outcome. Two other studies showed higher TSH values in the group of patients with unfavorable outcome. No significant relevant findings were observed in the remaining study. Regarding the correlation of sepsis prognostic scoring systems with thyroid function tests, the three studies that provided specific relevant data showed variable findings.

Discussion

Most of the relevant studies identified favor the concept that decreased thyroid function at baseline might be associated with a worse outcome of patients with sepsis or septic shock. Although these findings are not consistent, the role of thyroid function in affecting or merely predicting the outcome of sepsis or septic shock merits further investigation.

Open access

Michel Polak, Jo Blair, Primoz Kotnik, Effie Pournara, Birgitte Tønnes Pedersen, and Tilman R Rohrer

Objective

To investigate the effect of age at growth hormone (GH) treatment start on near adult height (NAH) in children with isolated GH deficiency (GHD).

Design

NordiNet® International Outcome Study (IOS) (Nbib960128), a non-interventional, multicentre study, evaluates the long-term effectiveness and safety of Norditropin® (somatropin) (Novo Nordisk A/S) in the real-life clinical setting.

Methods

Patients (n = 172) treated to NAH (height at ≥18 years, or height velocity <2 cm/year at ≥16 (boys) or ≥15 (girls) years) were grouped by age (years) at treatment start (early (girls, <8; boys, <9), intermediate (girls, 8–10; boys, 9–11) or late (girls, >10; boys, >11)) and GHD severity (<3 ng/mL or 3 to ≤10 ng/mL). Multiple regression analysis was used to evaluate the effect of age at treatment start (as a categorical and continuous variable) on NAH standard deviation score (SDS).

Results

Age at treatment start had a marked effect on NAH SDS; NAH SDS achieved by patients starting treatment early (n = 40 (boys, 70.0%); least squares mean (standard error) −0.76 (0.14)) exceeded that achieved by those starting later (intermediate, n = 42 (boys, 57.1%); −1.14 (0.15); late, n = 90 (boys, 68.9%); −1.21 (0.10)). Multiple regression analysis showed a significant association between NAH SDS and age at treatment start (P < 0.0242), baseline height SDS (HSDS) (P < 0.0001), target HSDS (P < 0.0001), and GHD severity (P = 0.0012). Most (78.5%) patients achieved a normal NAH irrespective of age at treatment start.

Conclusions

Early initiation of GH treatment in children with isolated GHD improves their chance of achieving their genetic height potential.