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Free access

Giulia Gava, Ilaria Mancini, Isabella Orsili, Silvano Bertelloni, Stefania Alvisi, Renato Seracchioli, and Maria Cristina Meriggiola

Objectives

To assess bone health in adult women with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) and removed gonads compared with age-matched healthy controls. To evaluate the effects of transdermal oestradiol 2 mg or oral estradiol valerate 2 mg on bone, biochemical and clinical characteristics.

Design

Cohort study.

Methods

Bone, body composition and anthropometric parameters were assessed in 32 adult CAIS and 32 healthy controls. In 28 cases, CAIS evaluations of metabolic, bone and body composition were performed also after a maximum of 6 years of therapy.

Results

Lumbar, femoral and total body bone mineral density (BMD) were significantly lower in those with CAIS when compared with controls. The prevalence of vertebral osteoporosis and osteopenia was significantly higher in the CAIS group (P = 0.038, OR = 9.67, 95% CI: 1.13–82.83 and P = 0.012, OR= 3.85, 95% CI: 1.34–11.16, respectively). Prevalence of femoral osteopenia was significantly higher in the CAIS group (P = 0.0012, OR = 7.93, 95% CI: 2.26–27.9). During follow-up, lumbar BMD significantly increased suggesting a significant effect of treatment on BMD (P = 0.0016), while femoral and total body BMD did not show any significant change. Total body BMD values were positively associated to the duration and route of oestrogen administration and to serum estradiol levels. Transdermal administration of estrogens was associated with better total body BMD in comparison to oral administration.

Conclusions

Our results reinforce the importance of adequate hormonal treatment for women living with CAIS, suggesting a better effect from the transdermal route over the oral route.

Open access

Angela K Lucas-Herald, Jillian Bryce, Andreas Kyriakou, Marie Lindhardt Ljubicic, Wiebke Arlt, Laura Audi, Antonio Balsamo, Federico Baronio, Silvano Bertelloni, Markus Bettendorf, Antonia Brooke, Hedi L Claahsen van der Grinten, Justin H Davies, Gloria Hermann, Liat de Vries, Ieuan A Hughes, Rieko Tadokoro-Cuccaro, Feyza Darendeliler, Sukran Poyrazoglu, Mona Ellaithi, Olcay Evliyaoglu, Simone Fica, Lavinia Nedelea, Aneta Gawlik, Evgenia Globa, Nataliya Zelinska, Tulay Guran, Ayla Güven, Sabine E Hannema, Olaf Hiort, Paul-Martin Holterhus, Violeta Iotova, Vilhelm Mladenov, Vandana Jain, Rajni Sharma, Farida Jennane, Colin Johnston, Gil Guerra Junior, Daniel Konrad, Odile Gaisl, Nils Krone, Ruth Krone, Katherine Lachlan, Dejun Li, Corina Lichiardopol, Lidka Lisa, Renata Markosyan, Inas Mazen, Klaus Mohnike, Marek Niedziela, Anna Nordenstrom, Rodolfo Rey, Mars Skaeil, Lloyd J W Tack, Jeremy Tomlinson, Naomi Weintrob, Martine Cools, and S Faisal Ahmed

Objectives

To determine trends in clinical practice for individuals with DSD requiring gonadectomy.

Design

Retrospective cohort study.

Methods

Information regarding age at gonadectomy according to diagnosis; reported sex; time of presentation to specialist centre; and location of centre from cases reported to the International DSD Registry and who were over 16 years old in January 2019.

Results

Data regarding gonadectomy were available in 668 (88%) individuals from 44 centres. Of these, 248 (37%) (median age (range) 24 (17, 75) years) were male and 420 (63%) (median age (range) 26 (16, 86) years) were female. Gonadectomy was reported from 36 centres in 351/668 cases (53%). Females were more likely to undergo gonadectomy (n = 311, P < 0.0001). The indication for gonadectomy was reported in 268 (76%). The most common indication was mitigation of tumour risk in 172 (64%). Variations in the practice of gonadectomy were observed; of the 351 cases from 36 centres, 17 (5%) at 9 centres had undergone gonadectomy before their first presentation to the specialist centre. Median age at gonadectomy of cases from high-income countries and low-/middle-income countries (LMIC) was 13.0 years (0.1, 68) years and 16.5 years (1, 28), respectively (P < 0.0001) with the likelihood of long-term retention of gonads being higher in LMIC countries.

Conclusions

The likelihood of gonadectomy depends on the underlying diagnosis, sex of rearing and the geographical setting. Clinical benchmarks, which can be studied across all forms of DSD will allow a better understanding of the variation in the practice of gonadectomy.