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Open access

Stefanie Eising, Anita Nilsson, Bendix Carstensen, David M Hougaard, Bent Nørgaard-Pedersen, Jørn Nerup, Åke Lernmark, and Flemming Pociot

Objective

A large, population-based case–control cohort was used to test the hypothesis that glutamic acid decarboxylase-65 (GAD65) and islet antigen-2 autoantibodies (IA-2A) at birth predict type 1 diabetes.

Design and methods

The design was an individually matched case–control study of all Danish type 1 diabetes patients born between 1981 and 2002 and diagnosed before May 1 2004 (median age at diagnosis was 8.8 years). Dried blood spot samples collected 5 days after birth in the 1981–2002 birth cohorts and stored at −25 °C were identified from 2023 patients and from two matched controls (n=4042). Birth data and information on parental age and diabetes were obtained from Danish registers. GAD65A and IA-2A were determined in a radiobinding assay. HLA-DQB1 alleles were analyzed by PCR using time-resolved fluorescence.

Results

GAD65A and IA-2A were found in 70/2023 (3.5%) patients compared to 21/4042 (0.5%) controls resulting in a hazard ratio (HR) of 7.49 (P<0.0001). The HR decreased to 4.55 but remained significant (P<0.0003) after controlling for parental diabetes and HLA-DQB1 alleles. Conditional logistic regression analysis showed a HR of 2.55 (P<0.0001) for every tenfold increase in the levels of GAD65A and IA-2A. This HR decreased to 1.93 but remained significant (P<0.001) after controlling for parental diabetes and HLA-DQB1 alleles.

Conclusion

These data suggest that GAD65A and IA-2A positivity at birth are associated with an increased risk of developing type 1 diabetes in Danish children diagnosed between 1981 and 2004.

Open access

G G Lavery, J Idkowiak, M Sherlock, I Bujalska, J P Ride, K Saqib, M F Hartmann, B Hughes, S A Wudy, J De Schepper, W Arlt, N Krone, C H Shackleton, E A Walker, and P M Stewart

Context

Inactivating mutations in the enzyme hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (H6PDH, encoded by H6PD) cause apparent cortisone reductase deficiency (ACRD). H6PDH generates cofactor NADPH for 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1, encoded by HSD11B1) oxo-reductase activity, converting cortisone to cortisol. Inactivating mutations in HSD11B1 cause true cortisone reductase deficiency (CRD). Both ACRD and CRD present with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation and adrenal hyperandrogenism.

Objective

To describe the clinical, biochemical and molecular characteristics of two additional female children with ACRD and to illustrate the diagnostic value of urinary steroid profiling in identifying and differentiating a total of six ACRD and four CRD cases.

Design

Clinical, biochemical and genetic assessment of two female patients presenting during childhood. In addition, results of urinary steroid profiling in a total of ten ACRD/CRD patients were compared to identify distinguishing characteristics.

Results

Case 1 was compound heterozygous for R109AfsX3 and a novel P146L missense mutation in H6PD. Case 2 was compound heterozygous for novel nonsense mutations Q325X and Y446X in H6PD. Mutant expression studies confirmed loss of H6PDH activity in both cases. Urinary steroid metabolite profiling by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry suggested ACRD in both cases. In addition, we were able to establish a steroid metabolite signature differentiating ACRD and CRD, providing a basis for genetic diagnosis and future individualised management.

Conclusions

Steroid profile analysis of a 24-h urine collection provides a diagnostic method for discriminating between ACRD and CRD. This will provide a useful tool in stratifying unresolved adrenal hyperandrogenism in children with premature adrenarche and adult females with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

Open access

Ilaria Messuti, Stefania Corvisieri, Francesca Bardesono, Ida Rapa, Jessica Giorcelli, Riccardo Pellerito, Marco Volante, and Fabio Orlandi

Objective

Differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) commonly occurs in women of child-bearing age and represents the second most frequent tumor diagnosed during pregnancy only behind breast cancer. It is possible that associated physiological changes could favor tumor development and growth. However, few data are available about the outcome of DTC related to pregnancy, leading to conflicting results.

Methods

Among the study population, 340 patients with DTC <45 years old were retrospectively studied. Patients were divided into three groups according to the time of tumor diagnosis in respect of pregnancy. Group 1, diagnosis of DTC at least 2 years after delivery; group 2, diagnosis during pregnancy or within the second year after delivery; and group 3, nulliparous patients at the time of diagnosis. We evaluated clinical outcome and immunohistochemical expression of estrogen receptor α (ERα), ERβ, progesterone receptor, and aromatase. We also analyzed the gene expression of NIS (SLC5A5) and the prevalence of BRAF V600E mutations.

Results

Persistence/recurrence of disease was significantly higher in group 2 patients than control groups (P=0.023). No significant differences were observed in other clinical parameters. Furthermore, no differences among the groups were recorded about ER pattern, NIS expression, and BRAF mutations.

Conclusions

Persistence/recurrence of DTC is significantly higher in pregnant patients, suggesting that pregnancy could really exert a negative prognostic role in patients with DTC. The underlying mechanisms are not yet clarified and further studies are required. Our results suggest that a more careful follow-up is needed when diagnosis of DTC occurs during pregnancy or shortly after.

Open access

Hongbo Yang, Kemin Yan, Xu Yuping, Qi Zhang, Linjie Wang, Fengying Gong, Huijuan Zhu, Weibo Xia, and Hui Pan

Context

Adult growth hormone deficiency (AGHD) is characterized by low bone density and increased risk of fracture. Bone microarchitecture is insufficiently evaluated in patients with childhood-onset AGHD (CO AGHD).

Objective

To assess volumetric bone density (vBMD) and bone microarchitecture in CO AGHD in early adulthood after cessation of recombinant growth hormone (rhGH) treatment.

Design and subjects

Case–control study in a major academic medical center in Beijing, including 20 young male adults with CO AGHD and 30 age- and weight-matched non-athletic healthy men. High-resolution peripheral quantitative computerized tomography (HR-pQCT) of distal radius and tibia was performed.

Outcomes

The main outcomes were vBMD and morphometry parameters from HR-pQCT.

Results

Compared with healthy controls, CO AGHD group had significantly decreased insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) level and IGF-1 SDS (P < 0.001). β-CTX and alkaline phosphatase levels in CO AGHD group were significantly increased (P < 0.001). CO AGHD group had significantly decreased total vBMD, cortical vBMD, trabecular vBMD, cortical area, cortical thickness as well as trabecular thickness and trabecular bone volume fraction of both tibia and radius (P < 0.001). CO AGHD patients had an 8.4 kg decrease in grip strength and a significant decrease in creatinine levels (P = 0.001). At both tibia and radius, by finite element analysis, bone stiffness and failure load of the CO AGHD patients were significantly decreased (P < 0.001). After adjusting for age, BMI and serum levels of testosterone and free thyroxin, serum IGF-1 level was a positive predictor for total vBMD, cortical vBMD, cortical area, trabecular vBMD, bone stiffness and failure load of both tibia and distal radius in all subjects.

Conclusions

Young adult male patients with childhood-onset adult growth hormone deficiency who are no longer receiving growth hormone replacement have prominently impaired volumetric bone density and bone microarchitecture and lower estimated bone strength.

Open access

Irina Bacila, Nicole Freeman, Eleni Daniel, Marija Sandrk, Jillian Bryce, Salma Rashid Ali, Zehra Yavas Abali, Navoda Atapattu, Tania A Bachega, Antonio Balsamo, Niels Birkebæk, Oliver Blankenstein, Walter Bonfig, Martine Cools, Eduardo Correa Costa, Feyza Darendeliler, Silvia Einaudi, Heba Hassan Elsedfy, Martijn Finken, Evelien Gevers, Hedi L Claahsen-van der Grinten, Tulay Guran, Ayla Güven, Sabine E Hannema, Claire E Higham, Violeta Iotova, Hetty J van der Kamp, Marta Korbonits, Ruth E Krone, Corina Lichiardopol, Andrea Luczay, Berenice Bilharinho Mendonca, Tatjana Milenkovic, Mirela C Miranda, Klaus Mohnike, Uta Neumann, Rita Ortolano, Sukran Poyrazoglu, Ajay Thankamony, Jeremy W Tomlinson, Ana Vieites, Liat de Vries, S Faisal Ahmed, Richard J Ross, and Nils P Krone

Objective

Despite published guidelines no unified approach to hormone replacement in congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) exists. We aimed to explore geographical and temporal variations in the treatment with glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids in CAH.

Design

This retrospective multi-center study, including 31 centers (16 countries), analyzed data from the International-CAH Registry.

Methods

Data were collected from 461 patients aged 0–18 years with classic 21-hydroxylase deficiency (54.9% females) under follow-up between 1982 and 2018. Type, dose and timing of glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid replacement were analyzed from 4174 patient visits.

Results

The most frequently used glucocorticoid was hydrocortisone (87.6%). Overall, there were significant differences between age groups with regards to daily hydrocortisone-equivalent dose for body surface, with the lowest dose (median with interquartile range) of 12.0 (10.0–14.5) mg/m2/day at age 1–8 years and the highest dose of 14.0 (11.6–17.4) mg/m2/day at age 12–18 years. Glucocorticoid doses decreased after 2010 in patients 0–8 years (P < 0.001) and remained unchanged in patients aged 8–18 years. Fludrocortisone was used in 92% of patients, with relative doses decreasing with age. A wide variation was observed among countries with regards to all aspects of steroid hormone replacement.

Conclusions

Data from the I-CAH Registry suggests international variations in hormone replacement therapy, with a tendency to treatment with high doses in children.

Open access

Luciana Martel-Duguech, Jens Otto L Jorgensen, Márta Korbonits, Gudmundur Johannsson, Susan M Webb, and the ESE AGHD Study Group for a Pan-European audit

Guidelines recommend adults with pituitary disease in whom GH therapy is contemplated, to be tested for GH deficiency (AGHD); however, clinical practice is not uniform.

Aims

(1) To record current practice of AGHD management throughout Europe and benchmark it against guidelines; (2) To evaluate educational status of healthcare professionals about AGHD.

Design

Online survey in endocrine centres throughout Europe.

Patients and methods

Endocrinologists voluntarily completed an electronic questionnaire regarding AGHD patients diagnosed or treated in 2017–2018.

Results

Twenty-eight centres from 17 European countries participated, including 2139 AGHD patients, 28% of childhood-onset GHD. Aetiology was most frequently non-functioning pituitary adenoma (26%), craniopharyngioma (13%) and genetic/congenital midline malformations (13%). Diagnosis of GHD was confirmed by a stimulation test in 52% (GHRH+arginine: 45%; insulin-tolerance: 42%, glucagon: 6%; GHRH alone and clonidine tests: 7%); in the remaining, ≥3 pituitary deficiencies and low serum IGF-I were diagnostic. Initial GH dose was lower in older patients, but only women <26 years were prescribed a higher dose than men; dose titration was based on normal serum IGF-I, tolerance and side-effects. In one country, AGHD treatment was not approved. Full public reimbursement was not available in four countries and only in childhood-onset GHD in another. AGHD awareness was low among non-endocrine professionals and healthcare administrators. Postgraduate AGHD curriculum training deserves being improved.

Conclusion

Despite guideline recommendations, GH replacement in AGHD is still not available or reimbursed in all European countries. Knowledge among professionals and health administrators needs improvement to optimise the care of adults with GHD.

Open access

Adam Stevens, Philip Murray, Jerome Wojcik, John Raelson, Ekaterina Koledova, Pierre Chatelain, Peter Clayton, and The PREDICT Investigator Group

Objective

Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with the response to recombinant human growth hormone (r-hGH) have previously been identified in growth hormone deficiency (GHD) and Turner syndrome (TS) children in the PREDICT long-term follow-up (LTFU) study (Nbib699855). Here, we describe the PREDICT validation (VAL) study (Nbib1419249), which aimed to confirm these genetic associations.

Design and methods

Children with GHD (n = 293) or TS (n = 132) were recruited retrospectively from 29 sites in nine countries. All children had completed 1 year of r-hGH therapy. 48 SNPs previously identified as associated with first year growth response to r-hGH were genotyped. Regression analysis was used to assess the association between genotype and growth response using clinical/auxological variables as covariates. Further analysis was undertaken using random forest classification.

Results

The children were younger, and the growth response was higher in VAL study. Direct genotype analysis did not replicate what was found in the LTFU study. However, using exploratory regression models with covariates, a consistent relationship with growth response in both VAL and LTFU was shown for four genes – SOS1 and INPPL1 in GHD and ESR1 and PTPN1 in TS. The random forest analysis demonstrated that only clinical covariates were important in the prediction of growth response in mild GHD (>4 to <10 μg/L on GH stimulation test), however, in severe GHD (≤4 μg/L) several SNPs contributed (in IGF2, GRB10, FOS, IGFBP3 and GHRHR).

Conclusions

The PREDICT validation study supports, in an independent cohort, the association of four of 48 genetic markers with growth response to r-hGH treatment in both pre-pubertal GHD and TS children after controlling for clinical/auxological covariates. However, the contribution of these SNPs in a prediction model of first-year response is not sufficient for routine clinical use.

Open access

Xiaoping Luo, Ling Hou, Li Liang, Guanping Dong, Shuixian Shen, Zhuhui Zhao, Chun Xiu Gong, Yuchuan Li, Min-lian Du, Zhe Su, Hongwei Du, and Chaoying Yan

Objective

We assessed the efficacy and safety of a weekly pegylated human growth hormone (PEG-rhGH) (Jintrolong) vs daily rhGH for children with growth hormone deficiency (GHD).

Design

Phase II and III, multicenter, open-label, randomized controlled trials.

Methods

108 and 343 children with treatment-naive GHD from 6 hospitals in China were enrolled in the phase II and III studies respectively. Patients in the phase II study were randomized 1:1:1 to weekly Jintrolong (0.1 mg/kg/week PEG-rhGH complex), weekly Jintrolong (0.2 mg/kg/week PEG-rhGH complex) or daily rhGH (0.25 mg/kg/week) for 25 weeks. Patients in the phase III study were randomized in a 2:1 ratio to weekly Jintrolong (0.2 mg/kg/week) or daily rhGH (0.25 mg/kg/week) for 25 weeks. The primary endpoint for both studies was height velocity (HV) increase at the end of treatment. Other growth-related parameters, safety and compliance were also monitored.

Results

The phase II study established the preliminary efficacy, safety and recommended dose of Jintrolong PEG-rhGH. In the phase III study, we demonstrated significantly greater HV increases in patients receiving Jintrolong treatment (from 2.26 ± 0.87 cm/year to 13.41 ± 3.72 cm/year) vs daily rhGH (from 2.25 ± 0.82 cm/year to 12.55 ± 2.99 cm/year) at the end of treatment (P < 0.05). Additionally, significantly greater improvement in the height standard deviation scores was associated with Jintrolong throughout the treatment (P < 0.05). Adverse event rates and treatment compliance were comparable between the two groups.

Conclusion

Jintrolong PEG-rhGH at a dose of 0.2 mg/kg/week for 25 weeks is effective and safe for GHD treatment and is non-inferior to daily rhGH.

Open access

Orit Cohen-Barak, Anat Sakov, Michele Rasamoelisolo, Merav Bassan, Kurt Brown, Boaz Mendzelevski, and Ofer Spiegelstein

Background

TV-1106 (Teva Pharmaceuticals) is a genetically fused recombinant protein of human GH (hGH) and human serum albumin, in development for treatment of GH deficiency (GHD). TV-1106 is expected to have an extended duration of action compared to daily GH treatment and may enable a reduction in the frequency of injections and improve compliance and quality of life for adults and children requiring GHD therapy.

Objective

To assess the safety, local tolerability, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of TV-1106 following single s.c. injections in healthy male volunteers.

Methods

Subjects (n=56) were assigned to one of seven ascending dose groups (3–100 mg) and received either a single dose of TV-1106 (n=6) or placebo (n=2) by s.c. injection.

Results

Eighteen subjects reported 43 adverse effects (AEs), which were mild to moderate; no serious AEs (SAEs) occurred. In 50, 70 and 100 mg groups there were mild to moderate increases in heart rate and systolic blood pressure that significantly correlated with higher levels of IGF1. TV-1106 showed pharmacokinetic characteristics of a long-acting hGH as demonstrated by a terminal elimination half-life of 23–35 h, delayed time of peak concentration, and systemic levels seen up to 7 days after dosing. IGF1 levels increased in a dose-dependent manner, before reaching a plateau, with levels above baseline extending beyond 7 days post dose.

Conclusion

Single administration of TV-1106 up to 100 mg was safe in healthy volunteers. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics support once-weekly administration in patients with GHD.

Open access

Armand Valsesia, Pierre Chatelain, Adam Stevens, Valentina A Peterkova, Alicia Belgorosky, Mohamad Maghnie, Franco Antoniazzi, Ekaterina Koledova, Jerome Wojcik, Pierre Farmer, Benoit Destenaves, Peter Clayton, and the PREDICT Investigator group

Meta-analysis has shown a modest improvement in first-year growth response to recombinant human GH (r-hGH) for carriers of the exon 3-deleted GH receptor (GHRd3) polymorphism but with significant interstudy variability. The associations between GHRd3 and growth response to r-hGH over 3 years in relation to severity of GH deficiency (GHD) were investigated in patients from 14 countries. Treatment-naïve pre-pubertal children with GHD were enrolled from the PREDICT studies (NCT00256126 and NCT00699855), categorized by peak GH level (peak GH) during provocation test: ≤4 μg/l (severe GHD; n=45) and >4 to <10 μg/l mild GHD; n=49) and genotyped for the GHRd3 polymorphism (full length (fl/fl, fl/d3, d3/d3). Gene expression (GE) profiles were characterized at baseline. Changes in growth (height (cm) and SDS) over 3 years were measured. There was a dichotomous influence of GHRd3 polymorphism on response to r-hGH, dependent on peak GH level. GH peak level (higher vs lower) and GHRd3 (fl/fl vs d3 carriers) combined status was associated with height change over 3 years (P<0.05). GHRd3 carriers with lower peak GH had lower growth than subjects with fl/fl (median difference after 3 years −3.3 cm; −0.3 SDS). Conversely, GHRd3 carriers with higher peak GH had better growth (+2.7 cm; +0.2 SDS). Similar patterns were observed for GH-dependent biomarkers. GE profiles were significantly different between the groups, indicating that the interaction between GH status and GHRd3 carriage can be identified at a transcriptomic level. This study demonstrates that responses to r-hGH depend on the interaction between GHD severity and GHRd3 carriage.