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Wan-Chen Wu, Kang-Yung Peng, Jin-Ying Lu, Chieh-Kai Chan, Chih-Yuan Wang, Fen-Yu Tseng, Wei-Shiung Yang, Yen-Hung Lin, Po-Chih Lin, Ting-Chu Chen, Kuo-How Huang, Jeff S Chueh, and Vin-Cent Wu


Concurrent autonomous cortisol secretion (ACS) in patients with primary aldosteronism (PA) is being reported more frequently. Several somatic mutations including PRKACA, GNAS, and CTNNB1 were identified in cortisol-producing adenomas (CPAs). The presence of these mutations in unilateral PA (uPA) patients concurrent with ACS (uPA/ACS) is not well known. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of these mutations and their clinical vs pathological characteristics in uPA/ACS.


This is a retrospective cohort study.


Totally 98 uPA patients from the Taiwan Primary Aldosteronism Investigation registry having overnight 1-mg dexamethasone suppression test (DST) and adrenalectomy from 2016 to 2018 were enrolled. Their adrenal tumors were tested for PRKACA, GNAS, and CTNNB1 mutations.


11 patients had CPA-related mutations (7 PRKACA and 4 GNAS). The patients carrying these mutations had higher post-DST cortisol (5.6 vs 2.6 μg/dL, P = 0.003) and larger adenoma (2.2 ± 0.3 vs 1.9 ± 0.7 cm, P = 0.025). Adenomas with these mutations had a higher prevalence of non-classical uPA (72.7% vs 26.3%, P = 0.014). Numerically, slightly more complete clinical success of uPA patients with these mutations was noticed after adrenalectomy, although it was statistically non-significant. Post-DST cortisol levels, adenoma size >1.9 cm, and the interaction of adenoma size >1.9 cm with potassium level were found to be associated with the presence of these mutations.


Our study showed that CPA-related mutations were detected in 36.7% of uPA/ACS adenomas. The presence of these mutations was associated with higher post-DST cortisol levels, larger adenoma sizes, and a high percentage of non-classical uPA. However, these mutations did not significantly affect the clinical and biochemical outcomes after adrenalectomy of uPA/ACS patients but they showed a better trend.

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Wei-De Lin, Chi-Fung Cheng, Chung-Hsing Wang, Wen-Miin Liang, Chien-Hsiun Chen, Ai-Ru Hsieh, Mu-Lin Chiu, Ting-Hsu Lin, Chiu-Chu Liao, Shao-Mei Huang, Chang-Hai Tsai, Cherry Yin-Yi Chang, Ying-Ju Lin, and Fuu-Jen Tsai


To investigate the genetic characteristics of idiopathic central precocious puberty (ICPP) and validate its polygenic risk for early puberty.

Design and methods

A bootstrap subsampling and genome-wide association study were performed on Taiwanese Han Chinese girls comprising 321 ICPP patients and 148 controls. Using previous GWAS data on pubertal timing, a replication study was performed. A validation group was also investigated for the weighted polygenic risk score (wPRS) of the risk of early puberty.


A total of 105 SNPs for the risk of ICPP were identified, of which 22 yielded an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.713 for the risk of early puberty in the validation group. A replication study showed that 33 SNPs from previous GWAS data of pubertal timing were associated with the risk of ICPP (training group: P-value < 0.05). In the validation group, a cumulative effect was observed between the wPRS and the risk of early puberty in a dose-dependent manner (validation group: Cochran–Armitage trend test: P-value < 1.00E−04; wPRS quartile 2 (Q2) (odds ratio (OR) = 5.00, 95% CI: 1.55–16.16), and wPRS Q3 (OR = 11.67, 95% CI: 2.44–55.83)).


This study reveals the ICPP genetic characteristics with 22 independent and 33 reported SNPs in the Han Chinese population from Taiwan. This study may contribute to understand the genetic features and underlying biological pathways that control pubertal timing and pathogenesis of ICPP and also to the identification of individuals with a potential genetic risk of early puberty.