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Free access

Michael Buchfelder, Aart-Jan van der Lely, Beverly M K Biller, Susan M Webb, Thierry Brue, Christian J Strasburger, Ezio Ghigo, Cecilia Camacho-Hubner, Kaijie Pan, Joanne Lavenberg, Peter Jönsson, and Juliana H Hey-Hadavi

Objectives

ACROSTUDY is an international, non-interventional study of acromegaly patients treated with pegvisomant (PEGV), a growth hormone receptor antagonist and has been conducted since 2004 in 15 countries to study the long-term safety and efficacy of PEGV. This report comprises the second interim analysis of 2090 patients as of May 12, 2016.

Methods

Descriptive analyses of safety, pituitary imaging and outcomes on PEGV treatment up to 12 years were performed.

Results

Prior to starting PEGV, 96% of patients had reported surgery, radiation, medical therapy or any combinations of those. At start of PEGV, 89% of patients had IGFI levels above the upper limit of normal (ULN). The percentage of patients with normal IGFI levels increased from 53% at year 1 to 73% at year 10, and the average daily dose of PEGV increased from 12.8 mg (year 1) to 18.9 mg (year 10). A total of 4832 adverse events (AEs) were reported in 1137 patients (54.4%), of which 570 were considered treatment related in 337 patients (16.1%). Serious AEs were reported in 22% of patients, of which 2.3% were considered treatment related. Locally reported MRIs showed most patients (72.2%) had no change in tumor size relative to the prior scan; 16.8% had a decrease, 6.8% an increase and 4.3% both. In patients with normal liver tests at PEGV start, an ALT or AST elevation of >3× ULN at any time point during their follow-up was reported in 3%.

Conclusions

This second interim analysis confirms that long-term use of PEGV is an effective and safe treatment in patients with acromegaly.

Free access

Clarisse Hochman, Justine Cristante, Aurore Geslot, Sylvie Salenave, Emmanuel Sonnet, Claire Briet, Anne Bachelot, Nicolas Chevalier, Olivier Gilly, Thierry Brue, Samy Hadjadj, Veronique Kerlan, Philippe Chanson, Delphine Vezzosi, Olivier Chabre, Delphine Drui, and Frederic Castinetti

Design

Hypercortisolism during pregnancy is a risk factor for prematurity. Long-term exposure to hypercortisolism may lead to permanent comorbidities, such as hypertension or diabetes, even after remission. Our aim was to determine whether women with a history of Cushing’s disease (and being eu-, hypo- or hypercortisolic at the time of pregnancy) had the same risks of comorbidities, and especially prematurity, during pregnancy.

Methods

It was a retrospective multicentric study focusing on mothers with a history of Cushing’s disease or diagnosed during pregnancy, followed in French tertiary referral centers. We compared the outcomes of pregnancies depending on the cortisolic status at the time of pregnancy.

Results

A total of 60 patients (78 pregnancies including 21 with hypercortisolism, 32 with hypocortisolism and 25 in eucortisolism in 25) were evaluated. The overall rate of preterm birth was 24.3%, with a peak in women diagnosed during pregnancy (62.5%), a high risk in hypercortisolic (33%) and hypocortisolic (19.3%), and a low risk (8%) in eucortisolic women Gestational diabetes and hypertension were observed in 21% and 10.4% of the whole cohort, with a higher risk in hypercortisolic women. Cesarean delivery was performed in 33.7% of the cohort.

Conclusions

Being non-eucortisolic at the time of pregnancy increases the risk of prematurity and comorbidities compared to the general population. Women with a history of Cushing’s disease should thus be carefully monitored during pregnancy. The high rate of cesarean delivery emphasizes the fact that these pregnancies should always be considered at risk.

Free access

Thomas Cuny, Morgane Pertuit, Mona Sahnoun-Fathallah, Adrian Daly, Gianluca Occhi, Marie Françoise Odou, Antoine Tabarin, Marie Laure Nunes, Brigitte Delemer, Vincent Rohmer, Rachel Desailloud, Véronique Kerlan, Olivier Chabre, Jean-Louis Sadoul, Muriel Cogne, Philippe Caron, Christine Cortet-Rudelli, Anne Lienhardt, Isabelle Raingeard, Anne-Marie Guedj, Thierry Brue, Albert Beckers, Georges Weryha, Alain Enjalbert, and Anne Barlier

Context

Germline mutations in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein gene (AIP) have been identified in young patients (age ≤30 years old) with sporadic pituitary macroadenomas. Otherwise, there are few data concerning the prevalence of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) mutations in such a population.

Objective

We assessed the prevalence of both AIP and MEN1 genetic abnormalities (mutations and large gene deletions) in young patients (age ≤30 years old) diagnosed with sporadic and isolated macroadenoma, without hypercalcemia and/or MEN1-associated lesions.

Design

The entire coding sequences of AIP and MEN1 were screened for mutations. In cases of negative sequencing screening, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification was performed for the detection of large genetic deletions.

Patients and settings

One hundred and seventy-four patients from endocrinology departments of 15 French University Hospital Centers were eligible for this study.

Results

Twenty-one out of 174 (12%) patients had AIP (n=15, 8.6%) or MEN1 (n=6, 3.4%) mutations. In pediatric patients (age ≤18 years old), AIP/MEN1 mutation frequency reached nearly 22% (n=10/46). AIPmut and MEN1mut were identified in 8/79 (10.1%) and 1/79 (1.2%) somatotropinoma patients respectively; they each accounted for 4/74 (5.4%) prolactinoma (PRL) patients with mutations. Half of those patients (n=3/6) with gigantism displayed mutations in AIP. Interestingly, 4/12 (33%) patients with non-secreting adenomas bore either AIP or MEN1 mutations, whereas none of the eight corticotroph adenomas or the single thyrotropinoma case had mutations. No large gene deletions were observed in sequencing-negative patients.

Conclusion

Mutations in MEN1 can be of significance in young patients with sporadic isolated pituitary macroadenomas, particularly PRL, and together with AIP, we suggest genetic analysis of MEN1 in such a population.

Open access

Peter J Trainer, John D C Newell-Price, John Ayuk, Simon J B Aylwin, Aled Rees, William Drake, Philippe Chanson, Thierry Brue, Susan M Webb, Carmen Fajardo, Javier Aller, Ann I McCormack, David J Torpy, George Tachas, Lynne Atley, David Ryder, and Martin Bidlingmaier

Objective

ATL1103 is a second-generation antisense oligomer targeting the human growth hormone (GH) receptor. This phase 2 randomised, open-label, parallel-group study assessed the potential of ATL1103 as a treatment for acromegaly.

Design

Twenty-six patients with active acromegaly (IGF-I >130% upper limit of normal) were randomised to subcutaneous ATL1103 200 mg either once or twice weekly for 13 weeks and monitored for a further 8-week washout period.

Methods

The primary efficacy measures were change in IGF-I at week 14, compared to baseline and between cohorts. For secondary endpoints (IGFBP3, acid labile subunit (ALS), GH, growth hormone-binding protein (GHBP)), comparison was between baseline and week 14. Safety was assessed by reported adverse events.

Results and conclusions

Baseline median IGF-I was 447 and 649 ng/mL in the once- and twice-weekly groups respectively. Compared to baseline, at week 14, twice-weekly ATL1103 resulted in a median fall in IGF-I of 27.8% (P = 0.0002). Between cohort comparison at week 14 demonstrated the median fall in IGF-I to be 25.8% (P = 0.0012) greater with twice-weekly dosing. In the twice-weekly cohort, IGF-I was still declining at week 14, and remained lower at week 21 than at baseline by a median of 18.7% (P = 0.0005). Compared to baseline, by week 14, IGFBP3 and ALS had declined by a median of 8.9% (P = 0.027) and 16.7% (P = 0.017) with twice-weekly ATL1103; GH had increased by a median of 46% at week 14 (P = 0.001). IGFBP3, ALS and GH did not change with weekly ATL1103. GHBP fell by a median of 23.6% and 48.8% in the once- and twice-weekly cohorts (P = 0.027 and P = 0.005) respectively. ATL1103 was well tolerated, although 84.6% of patients experienced mild-to-moderate injection-site reactions. This study provides proof of concept that ATL1103 is able to significantly lower IGF-I in patients with acromegaly.

Free access

Cheol Ryong Ku, Thierry Brue, Katharina Schilbach, Stanislav Ignatenko, Sandor Magony, Yoon-Sok Chung, Byung-Joon Kim, Kyu Yeon Hur, Ho-Cheol Kang, Jung Hee Kim, Min Seon Kim, Aldona Kowalska, Marek Bolanowski, Marek Ruchala, Svetozar Damjanovic, Juraj Payer, Yun Jung Choi, Su Jin Heo, Tae Kyoung Kim, MinKyu Heo, Joan Lee, and Eun Jig Lee

Objective

Hybrid Fc-fused rhGH (GX-H9) is a long-acting recombinant human growth hormone (GH) under clinical development for both adults and children with GH deficiency (GHD). We compared the safety, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of weekly and every other week (EOW) dosages of GX-H9 with those of daily GH administration in adult GHD (AGHD) patients.

Design

This was a randomized, open-label, active-controlled and dose-escalation study conducted in 16 endocrinology centers in Europe and Korea.

Methods

Forty-five AGHD patients with or without prior GH treatment were enrolled. Patients with prior GH treatments were required to have received the last GH administration at least 1 month prior to randomization. Subjects were sequentially assigned to treatment groups. Fifteen subjects were enrolled to each treatment group and randomly assigned to receive either GX-H9 or Genotropin (4:1 ratio). GX-H9 dosage regimens for Groups 1, 2 and 3 were 0.1 mg/kg weekly, 0.3 mg/kg EOW and 0.2 mg/kg EOW, respectively. All Genotropin-assigned subjects received 6 µg/kg Genotropin, regardless of treatment group. Main outcome analyses included measurements of serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I), safety, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and immunogenicity.

Results

Mean GX-H9 peak and total exposure increased with an increase in dose after a single-dose administration. The mean IGF-I response was sustained above baseline over the intended dose interval of 168 h for the weekly and 336 h for the EOW GX-H9 groups. Safety profiles and immunogenicity were not different across the treatment groups and with Genotropin.

Conclusions

GX-H9 has the potential for up to twice-monthly administration.

Free access

Frédéric Illouz, Philippe Chanson, Emmanuel Sonnet, Thierry Brue, Amandine Ferriere, Marie-Laure Raffin Sanson, Marie-Christine Vantyghem, Gérald Raverot, Mathilde Munier, Patrice Rodien, and Claire Briet

Objective

Somatostatin receptor ligands (SRL) are useful to control central hyperthyroidism in patients with thyrotropin-secreting pituitary adenoma (TSH pituitary adenoma). The aim of this study was to describe the frequency of thyrotropin deficiency (TSH deficiency) in patients with TSH pituitary adenoma treated by SRL.

Design

Retrospective study.

Methods

Patients with central hyperthyroidism due to TSH pituitary adenoma treated by short or long-acting SRL were retrospectively included. TSH deficiency was defined by a low FT4 associated with non-elevated TSH concentrations during SRL therapy. We analysed the frequency of TSH deficiency and the characteristics of patients with or without TSH deficiency.

Results

Forty-six patients were included. SRL were used as the first-line therapy in 21 of 46 patients (46%). Central hyperthyroidism was controlled in 36 of 46 patients (78%). TSH deficiency appeared in 7 of 46 patients (15%) after a median time of 4 weeks (4–7) and for a median duration of 3 months (2.5–3). The TSH deficiency occurred after one to three injections of long-acting SRL used as first-line therapy in 6/7 cases. There were no differences in terms of clinical and hormonal features, size of adenomas or doses of SRL between patients with or without TSH deficiency.

Conclusions

SRL can induce TSH deficiency in patients with central hyperthyroidism due to TSH pituitary adenoma. Thyrotropic function should be assessed before the first three injections of SRL in order to track TSH deficiency and reduce the frequency of injections when control of thyrotoxicosis rather than tumour reduction is the aim of the treatment.

Open access

Maria Fleseriu, Dagmar Führer-Sakel, Aart J van der Lely, Laura De Marinis, Thierry Brue, Joli van der Lans-Bussemaker, Judith Hey-Hadavi, Cecilia Camacho-Hubner, Michael P Wajnrajch, Srinivas Rao Valluri, Andrew Anthony Palladino, Roy Gomez, and Roberto Salvatori

Objective

To report the final long-term safety and efficacy analyses of patients with acromegaly treated with pegvisomant from the ACROSTUDY.

Design

Global (15 countries), multicentre, non-interventional study (2004–2017).

Methods

The complete ACROSTUDY cohort comprised patients with acromegaly, who were being treated with pegvisomant (PEGV) prior to the study or at enrolment. The main endpoints were long-term safety (comorbidities, adverse events (AEs), pituitary tumour volumes, liver tests) and efficacy (IGF1 changes).

Results

Patients (n = 2221) were treated with PEGV for a median of 9.3 years (range, 0–20.8 years) and followed up for a median of 7.4 years (range, 0–13.9 years). Before PEGV, 96.3% had received other acromegaly treatments (surgery/radiotherapy/medications). Before PEGV treatment, 87.2% of patients reported comorbidities. During ACROSTUDY, 5567 AEs were reported in 56.5% of patients and of these 613 were considered treatment-related (in 16.5% of patients) and led to drug withdrawal in 1.3%. Pituitary imaging showed a tumour size increase in 7.1% of patients; the majority (71.1%) reported no changes. Abnormal AST or ALT liver tests occurred in 3.2% of patients. IGF1 normalization rate improved over time, increasing from 11.4% at PEGV start to 53.7% at year 1, and reaching 75.4% at year 10 with the use of ≥30 mg PEGV/day in an increasing proportion of patients.

Conclusion

This comprehensive review of the complete cohort in ACROSTUDY confirmed the overall favourable benefit-to-risk profile and high efficacy of PEGV as mono- and combination therapy in patients with an aggressive course/uncontrolled/active acromegaly requiring long-term medical therapy for control.

Restricted access

Frederic Castinetti, Philippe Caron, Isabelle Raingeard, Vincent Amodru, Frederique Albarel, Isabelle Morange, Philippe Chanson, Julie Calvo, Thomas Graillon, Karine Baumstarck, Henry Dufour, Jean Regis, and Thierry Brue

Introduction

Persistent growth hormone hypersecretion can be observed in roughly 50% of patients operated for somatotroph adenomas, requiring additional treatments. Despite its proven antisecretory efficacy, the use of Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GK) is limited probably due to the lack of data on long-term side effects, including potential cognitive consequences.

Methods

The LATe Effects of Radiosurgery in Acromegaly study was a cross-sectional exposed/unexposed non-randomized study. The primary objective was to determine the long-term neurocognitive effects of GK focusing on memory, executive functions, and calculation ability. Exposed patients had been treated by GK for acromegaly at least 5 years before inclusion. Unexposed patients (paired for age) had to be cured or controlled at last follow-up without any radiation technique. Patients of both groups were cured or controlled at the last follow-up.

Results

Sixty-four patients were evaluated (27 exposed and 37 unexposed). Mean follow-up after GK was 13 ± 6 years (including 24 patients followed for at least 10 years). While up to 23.8% of the patients of the whole cohort presented at least one abnormal cognitive test, we did not observe any significant difference in neurocognitive function between both groups. During the follow-up, 11 patients presented at least one new pituitary deficiency (P  = 0.009 for thyroid-stimulating hormone deficiency with a higher rate in exposed patients), two presented a stroke (1 in each group), and one presented a meningioma (12 years after GK).

Conclusions

While GK exposes patients to a well-known risk of pituitary deficiency, it does not seem to induce long-term cognitive consequences in patients treated for acromegaly.

Free access

Elena Valassi, Holger Franz, Thierry Brue, Richard A Feelders, Romana Netea-Maier, Stylianos Tsagarakis, Susan M Webb, Maria Yaneva, Martin Reincke, Michael Droste, Irina Komerdus, Dominique Maiter, Darko Kastelan, Philippe Chanson, Marija Pfeifer, Christian J Strasburger, Miklós Tóth, Olivier Chabre, Antoine Tabarin, Michal Krsek, Carmen Fajardo, Marek Bolanowski, Alicia Santos, John A H Wass, Peter J Trainer, and for the ERCUSYN Study Group

Objective

To evaluate which tests are performed to diagnose hypercortisolism in patients included in the European Registry on Cushing’s syndrome (ERCUSYN), and to examine if their use differs from the current guidelines.

Patients and methods

We analyzed data on the diagnostic tests performed in 1341 patients with Cushing’s syndrome (CS) who have been entered into the ERCUSYN database between January 1, 2000 and January 31, 2016 from 57 centers in 26 European countries. Sixty-seven percent had pituitary-dependent CS (PIT-CS), 24% had adrenal-dependent CS (ADR-CS), 6% had CS from an ectopic source (ECT-CS) and 3% were classified as having CS from other causes (OTH-CS).

Results

Of the first-line tests, urinary free cortisol (UFC) test was performed in 78% of patients, overnight 1 mg dexamethasone suppression test (DST) in 60% and late-night salivary cortisol (LSaC) in 25%. Use of LSaC increased in the last five years as compared with previous years (P < 0.01). Use of HDDST was slightly more frequent in the last 5 years as compared with previous years (P < 0.05). Of the additional tests, late-night serum cortisol (LSeC) was measured in 62% and 48-h 2 mg/day low-dose dexamethasone suppression test (LDDST) in 33% of cases. ACTH was performed in 78% of patients. LSeC and overnight 1 mg DST supported the diagnosis of both PIT-CS and ADR-CS more frequently than UFC (P < 0.05).

Conclusions

Use of diagnostic tests for CS varies across Europe and partly differs from the currently available guidelines. It would seem pertinent that a European consensus be established to determine the best diagnostic approach to CS, taking into account specific inter-country differences with regard to the availability of diagnostic tools.

Free access

Maria A Tichomirowa, Anne Barlier, Adrian F Daly, Marie-Lise Jaffrain-Rea, Cristina Ronchi, Maria Yaneva, Jonathan D Urban, Patrick Petrossians, Atanaska Elenkova, Antoine Tabarin, Rachel Desailloud, Dominique Maiter, Thomas Schürmeyer, Renato Cozzi, Marily Theodoropoulou, Caroline Sievers, Ignacio Bernabeu, Luciana A Naves, Olivier Chabre, Carmen Fajardo Montañana, Vaclav Hana, Georges Halaby, Brigitte Delemer, José Ignacio Labarta Aizpún, Emmanuel Sonnet, Ángel Ferrandez Longás, Marie-Thérèse Hagelstein, Philippe Caron, Günter K Stalla, Vincent Bours, Sabina Zacharieva, Anna Spada, Thierry Brue, and Albert Beckers

Background

Aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP) mutations (AIPmut) cause aggressive pituitary adenomas in young patients, usually in the setting of familial isolated pituitary adenomas. The prevalence of AIPmut among sporadic pituitary adenoma patients appears to be low; studies have not addressed prevalence in the most clinically relevant population. Hence, we undertook an international, multicenter, prospective genetic, and clinical analysis at 21 tertiary referral endocrine departments.

Methods

We included 163 sporadic pituitary macroadenoma patients irrespective of clinical phenotype diagnosed at <30 years of age.

Results

Overall, 19/163 (11.7%) patients had germline AIPmut; a further nine patients had sequence changes of uncertain significance or polymorphisms. AIPmut were identified in 8/39 (20.5%) pediatric patients. Ten AIPmut were identified in 11/83 (13.3%) sporadic somatotropinoma patients, in 7/61 (11.5%) prolactinoma patients, and in 1/16 non-functioning pituitary adenoma patients. Large genetic deletions were not seen using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. Familial screening was possible in the relatives of seven patients with AIPmut and carriers were found in six of the seven families. In total, pituitary adenomas were diagnosed in 2/21 AIPmut-screened carriers; both had asymptomatic microadenomas.

Conclusion

Germline AIPmut occur in 11.7% of patients <30 years with sporadic pituitary macroadenomas and in 20.5% of pediatric patients. AIPmut mutation testing in this population should be considered in order to optimize clinical genetic investigation and management.