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Open access

Hanna F Nowotny, Leah Braun, Frederick Vogel, Martin Bidlingmaier, Martin Reincke, Lea Tschaidse, Matthias K Auer, Christian Lottspeich, Stefan A Wudy, Michaela F Hartmann, James Hawley, Joanne E Adaway, Brian Keevil, Katharina Schilbach, and Nicole Reisch


Symptoms of hyperandrogenism are common in patients with Cushing’s disease (CD), yet they are not sufficiently explained by androgen concentrations. In this study, we analyzed the contribution of 11-oxygenated C19 steroids (11oxC19) to hyperandrogenemia in female patients with CD.


We assessed saliva day profiles in females with CD pre (n  = 23) and post (n  = 13) successful transsphenoidal surgery, 26 female controls, 5 females with CD treated with metyrapone and 5 treated with osilodrostat for cortisol, cortisone, androstenedione (A4), 11-hydroxyandrostenedione (11OHA4), testosterone (TS), 11-ketotestosterone (11KT), as well as metabolites of classic and 11-oxygenated androgens in 24-h urine. In addition, morning baseline levels of gonadotropins and estradiol, sex hormone-binding globulin, cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) in serum and adrenocorticotrophic hormone in plasma in patients and controls were investigated.


Treatment-naïve females with CD showed a significantly elevated area under the curve of 11OHA4 and 11KT in saliva throughout the day compared to controls (11OHA4 mean rank difference (mrd) 18.13, P = 0.0002; 11KT mrd 17.42; P = 0.0005), whereas A4, TS and DHEAS were comparable to controls. Gonadotropin concentrations were normal in all patients with CD. After transsphenoidal surgery, 11oxC19 and their metabolites dropped significantly in saliva (11OHA4 P < 0.0001; 11KT P = 0.0010) and urine (11-oxo-androsterone P = 0.0011; 11-hydroxy-androsterone P < 0.0001), treatment with osilodrostat and metyrapone efficaciously blocked 11oxC19 synthesis.


Hyperandrogenemia in CD is predominantly caused by excess of 11oxC19 steroids.

Open access

Peter J Trainer, John D C Newell-Price, John Ayuk, Simon J B Aylwin, Aled Rees, William Drake, Philippe Chanson, Thierry Brue, Susan M Webb, Carmen Fajardo, Javier Aller, Ann I McCormack, David J Torpy, George Tachas, Lynne Atley, David Ryder, and Martin Bidlingmaier


ATL1103 is a second-generation antisense oligomer targeting the human growth hormone (GH) receptor. This phase 2 randomised, open-label, parallel-group study assessed the potential of ATL1103 as a treatment for acromegaly.


Twenty-six patients with active acromegaly (IGF-I >130% upper limit of normal) were randomised to subcutaneous ATL1103 200 mg either once or twice weekly for 13 weeks and monitored for a further 8-week washout period.


The primary efficacy measures were change in IGF-I at week 14, compared to baseline and between cohorts. For secondary endpoints (IGFBP3, acid labile subunit (ALS), GH, growth hormone-binding protein (GHBP)), comparison was between baseline and week 14. Safety was assessed by reported adverse events.

Results and conclusions

Baseline median IGF-I was 447 and 649 ng/mL in the once- and twice-weekly groups respectively. Compared to baseline, at week 14, twice-weekly ATL1103 resulted in a median fall in IGF-I of 27.8% (P = 0.0002). Between cohort comparison at week 14 demonstrated the median fall in IGF-I to be 25.8% (P = 0.0012) greater with twice-weekly dosing. In the twice-weekly cohort, IGF-I was still declining at week 14, and remained lower at week 21 than at baseline by a median of 18.7% (P = 0.0005). Compared to baseline, by week 14, IGFBP3 and ALS had declined by a median of 8.9% (P = 0.027) and 16.7% (P = 0.017) with twice-weekly ATL1103; GH had increased by a median of 46% at week 14 (P = 0.001). IGFBP3, ALS and GH did not change with weekly ATL1103. GHBP fell by a median of 23.6% and 48.8% in the once- and twice-weekly cohorts (P = 0.027 and P = 0.005) respectively. ATL1103 was well tolerated, although 84.6% of patients experienced mild-to-moderate injection-site reactions. This study provides proof of concept that ATL1103 is able to significantly lower IGF-I in patients with acromegaly.

Open access

Jens Sandahl Christiansen, Philippe F Backeljauw, Martin Bidlingmaier, Beverly M K Biller, Margaret C S Boguszewski, Felipe F Casanueva, Philippe Chanson, Pierre Chatelain, Catherine S Choong, David R Clemmons, Laurie E Cohen, Pinchas Cohen, Jan Frystyk, Adda Grimberg, Yukihiro Hasegawa, Morey W Haymond, Ken Ho, Andrew R Hoffman, Jeff M P Holly, Reiko Horikawa, Charlotte Höybye, Jens Otto L Jorgensen, Gudmundur Johannsson, Anders Juul, Laurence Katznelson, John J Kopchick, K O Lee, Kuk-Wha Lee, Xiaoping Luo, Shlomo Melmed, Bradley S Miller, Madhusmita Misra, Vera Popovic, Ron G Rosenfeld, Judith Ross, Richard J Ross, Paul Saenger, Christian J Strasburger, Michael O Thorner, Haim Werner, and Kevin Yuen


The Growth Hormone (GH) Research Society (GRS) convened a workshop to address important issues regarding trial design, efficacy, and safety of long-acting growth hormone preparations (LAGH).


A closed meeting of 55 international scientists with expertise in GH, including pediatric and adult endocrinologists, basic scientists, regulatory scientists, and participants from the pharmaceutical industry.


Current literature was reviewed for gaps in knowledge. Expert opinion was used to suggest studies required to address potential safety and efficacy issues.

Consensus process

Following plenary presentations summarizing the literature, breakout groups discussed questions framed by the planning committee. Attendees reconvened after each breakout session to share group reports. A writing team compiled the breakout session reports into a draft document that was discussed and revised in an open forum on the concluding day. This was edited further and then circulated to attendees from academic institutions for review after the meeting. Participants from pharmaceutical companies did not participate in the planning, writing, or in the discussions and text revision on the final day of the workshop. Scientists from industry and regulatory agencies reviewed the manuscript to identify any factual errors.


LAGH compounds may represent an advance over daily GH injections because of increased convenience and differing phamacodynamic properties, providing the potential for improved adherence and outcomes. Better methods to assess adherence must be developed and validated. Long-term surveillance registries that include assessment of efficacy, cost-benefit, disease burden, quality of life, and safety are essential for understanding the impact of sustained exposure to LAGH preparations.

Open access

Margaret C S Boguszewski, Cesar L Boguszewski, Wassim Chemaitilly, Laurie E Cohen, Judith Gebauer, Claire Higham, Andrew R Hoffman, Michel Polak, Kevin C J Yuen, Nathalie Alos, Zoltan Antal, Martin Bidlingmaier, Beverley M K Biller, George Brabant, Catherine S Y Choong, Stefano Cianfarani, Peter E Clayton, Regis Coutant, Adriane A Cardoso-Demartini, Alberto Fernandez, Adda Grimberg, Kolbeinn Guðmundsson, Jaime Guevara-Aguirre, Ken K Y Ho, Reiko Horikawa, Andrea M Isidori, Jens Otto Lunde Jørgensen, Peter Kamenicky, Niki Karavitaki, John J Kopchick, Maya Lodish, Xiaoping Luo, Ann I McCormack, Lillian Meacham, Shlomo Melmed, Sogol Mostoufi Moab, Hermann L Müller, Sebastian J C M M Neggers, Manoel H Aguiar Oliveira, Keiichi Ozono, Patricia A Pennisi, Vera Popovic, Sally Radovick, Lars Savendahl, Philippe Touraine, Hanneke M van Santen, and Gudmundur Johannsson

Growth hormone (GH) has been used for over 35 years, and its safety and efficacy has been studied extensively. Experimental studies showing the permissive role of GH/insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I) in carcinogenesis have raised concerns regarding the safety of GH replacement in children and adults who have received treatment for cancer and those with intracranial and pituitary tumours. A consensus statement was produced to guide decision-making on GH replacement in children and adult survivors of cancer, in those treated for intracranial and pituitary tumours and in patients with increased cancer risk. With the support of the European Society of Endocrinology, the Growth Hormone Research Society convened a Workshop, where 55 international key opinion leaders representing 10 professional societies were invited to participate. This consensus statement utilized: (1) a critical review paper produced before the Workshop, (2) five plenary talks, (3) evidence-based comments from four breakout groups, and (4) discussions during report-back sessions. Current evidence reviewed from the proceedings from the Workshop does not support an association between GH replacement and primary tumour or cancer recurrence. The effect of GH replacement on secondary neoplasia risk is minor compared to host- and tumour treatment-related factors. There is no evidence for an association between GH replacement and increased mortality from cancer amongst GH-deficient childhood cancer survivors. Patients with pituitary tumour or craniopharyngioma remnants receiving GH replacement do not need to be treated or monitored differently than those not receiving GH. GH replacement might be considered in GH-deficient adult cancer survivors in remission after careful individual risk/benefit analysis. In children with cancer predisposition syndromes, GH treatment is generally contraindicated but may be considered cautiously in select patients.