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Sylvie Hiéronimus, Magali Bec-Roche, Florence Pedeutour, Jean Claude Lambert, Kathy Wagner-Malher, Jean Christophe Mas, Jean Louis Sadoul, and Patrick Fénichel

Objective: Clinical features associated with microdeletion of chromosome 22q11 (del(22)(q11)) are highly variable. Increased awareness of this condition is needed among specialists such as endocrinologists to reduce diagnostic delay and improve clinical care. The purpose of this study was to describe the phenotype of patients with del(22)(q11), focusing on parathyroid gland dysfunction.

Design and methods: Charts of 19 patients, including one kindred of three, known to have del(22)(q11) diagnosed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) were reviewed from the register of the department of Medical Genetics. Major clinical features including hypoparathyroidism phenotype were collected.

Results: Parathyroid dysfunction was present in 8 out of 16 patients (50%). Six patients were diagnosed with overt hypoparathyroidism. Hypocalcemia manifested as laryngeal stridor within the first days of life (n=3), seizures in infancy (n=1) and adolescence (n=2). The connection between hypoparathyroidism and diagnosis of del(22)(q11) was belated at the median age of 18 years. One patient had presented with transient neonatal hypoparathyroidism, and one patient had latent hypoparathyroidism. Within the kindred family, the phenotype variability including that of parathyroid dysfunction was as marked as between unrelated individuals. Standard karyotype failed to detect the deletion in 15 out of 19 cases.

Conclusions: Abnormal parathyroid function in the del(22)(q11) ranges from severe neonatal hypocalcemia to latent hypoparathyroidism. Del(22)(q11) should be considered as a potential cause of hypocalcemia even in young adult. When suspected, the diagnosis requires investigation by FISH. Furthermore, long-term calcemia follow-up is needed in normocalcemic patients with del(22)(q11) because of the possible evolution to hypocalcemic hypoparathyroidism.

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Peter M. Messer, Berthold P. Hauffa, Thomas Olbricht, Georg Benker, Peter Kotulla, and Dankwart Reinwein


With regard to their thyroid function, somatic and intellectual development, we compared 17 children of 13 hyperthyroid mothers (group I) receiving antithyroid drug treatment during their pregnancies with 25 children of 15 mothers who were euthyroid without any antithyroid treatment during their pregnancy (group II). Mean duration of maternal treatment was 3.5 months in group I, using carbimazole or thiamazole (N=12) and propylthiouracil (N=1). Age at examination in group I was 7.2±6.2 years, in group II 8.7±7.1 years (mean±sd). Both groups showed no significant differences in the results of the clinical examination and in the degree of their mental and psychomotoric development at the time of study. We found the mean birth weight of the infants in group I significantly lower than in group II(3165±339 vs 3666±670 g, p<0.03). The individual birth weights, however, were normal for gestational age. The body weight difference between groups disappeared during the further somatic development of the children. The serum concentration of free thyroxine in group I was significantly higher than in group II (17.2 ± 2.4 vs 14.9±1.9 pmol/l, p<0.003), but fell in both groups within the normal range. The evaluation of the psychomotoric and intellectual capacity of the children at different developmental stages showed no abnormalities detectable by our tests. Thus, in the children of the two groups we found no adverse effects of a maternal antithyroid drug treatment during pregnancy or of inactive maternal Graves' disease alone, neither on thyroid gland size and function nor on the physical or intellectual development, after the neonatal period.

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C. Friderichsen

Adrenal failure in the infant or in the child – in contrast to the adult – is more frequently acute than chronic. This may possibly be due to the anatomical peculiarity that the adrenal glands at birth are comparatively large, constituting 0.2 per cent. of the body weight, as against 0.1 per cent in adults.

In childhood adrenal hemorrhages appear as two widely different syndromes.

The one is observed in the newborn: neonatal suprarenal hemorrhage, shortly after birth. This syndrome has nothing to do with infection; it was previously considered a traumatic sequela, but since this syndrome has virtually disappeared with the introduction of prophylactic vitamin K treatment during pregnancy, there is every probability that the great proportion of cases suffered from K avitaminosis, as in melena of the newborn.

The clinical picture of adrenal hemorrhage in the newborn is dominated by three symptoms: 1. Asphyxia – 2. severe cyanosis

Free access

S Bargagna, D Dinetti, A Pinchera, M Marcheschi, L Montanelli, S Presciuttini, and L Chiovato

OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of school attainments in children with congenital hypothyroidism (CH) detected by neonatal screening and treated early in life. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Text comprehension, mathematics, reading, writing and verbal and spatial memory, as indices of school learning, were evaluated in nineteen 5- to 10-year-old children with CH attending nursery or elementary school. l-Thyroxine substitution (starting dose 8-10 microg/kg body weight per day) was initiated at a mean age of 30+/-10 days of life. The control group included 298 unaffected children matched with the CH children for age and school grade. Thirty per cent of controls were classmates of CH children. Intelligence quotients (IQ), language performances and motor development were evaluated in CH children at age 5 years, and were related to their school attainments. School performances of CH children were also compared with their neonatal serum thyroxine (T4) concentration, and with the social-cultural level of the family. RESULTS: Four out of 19 (21%) children with CH, 3 in the nursery and 1 in the elementary school, displayed a generalized learning disorder. Symbol copy, geometric copy, phrase repetition, dictation writing and spontaneous writing were particularly defective in nursery school CH children, while orthographic error recognition was defective in elementary school CH children. School learning disorders in CH children were significantly correlated with a borderline-low IQ, poor language performances and a low social-cultural level of the family, but not with motor skills or neonatal T4 concentration. CONCLUSION: School attainments of early treated CH children were within the normal range in most affected cases. However, about 20% of CH children, most of them attending nursery school, showed a generalized learning disorder. Low IQ scores and poor language performances at age 5 years were associated with defective learning, mainly in CH children living in a poor social-cultural environment. In this subset of CH children, prompt initiation of speech and psychomotor rehabilitation therapy is recommended in order to prevent subsequent school learning disorders.

Free access

Nicoletta Bisacchi, Milva Orquidea Bal, Laura Nardi, Ilaria Bettocchi, Graziana D'Addabbo, Veronica Conti, Sara Monti, Franco D'Alberton, Alessandro Cicognani, and Alessandra Cassio


To compare the psychological adjustment and behaviour of congenital hypothyroidism (CH) children and their parents with a control group.

Study design

A cross-sectional study was carried out with 84 CH subjects diagnosed by neonatal screening (range 2.7–18.6 years), subdivided into four age groups: group 1 (2–5 years); group 2 (6–10 years); group 3 (11–13 years); and group 4 (14–18 years) and was compared with an age-matched control group. Patients were assessed using two questionnaires: Child Behaviour Checklist for parents and Youth Self-Report for children over 11 years of age.


In groups 1, 3 and 4, total score (TS), internalising score (IS=problems within the self) and externalising score (ES=conflicts with other people) as reported by parents were not significantly different in CH patients and in controls. In group 2, parents of CH children showed values of TS (P<0.05), IS (P<0.05), ES (P<0.05) and scores on other scales significantly higher than controls. In self-reports of groups 3 and 4, the behavioural scales were not significantly different in CH patients and in controls.


Paediatricians should be informed about the increased risk of the development of behavioural problems at primary school age in CH patients. At this age special attention should be paid to parental worries and anxiety. However, it can be reassuring for the patients and parents to know that the problems may be related to CH, and that they may spontaneously disappear.

Free access

Juliane Léger

Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is the most common congenital endocrine disorder. The early treatment of CH patients has successfully improved the prognosis and management of this disorder. Optimal treatment and management throughout the patient's life, beginning in the neonatal period, are required to ensure long-term health. Affected patients should be offered assessments of associated medical conditions and provided with accurate information about their condition throughout their lives, but particularly during the transition from pediatric to adult services. This review provides a summary of current knowledge about the long-term outcomes of these patients and appropriate management into early adulthood. We carried out a systematic search of the Medline database to identify relevant articles. Despite major improvements in prognosis, the impact of CH is clearly not uniform, and management should take into account a broader range of relevant indicators, including CH severity, associated comorbid conditions and the adequacy of treatment during childhood and adulthood. The early diagnosis and management of associated medical conditions, and better educational strategies to improve compliance with treatment, should improve the long-term prognosis. Further studies are required to explore changes with aging.

Free access

Anna G Angelousi, Drosos E Karageorgopoulos, Anastasios M Kapaskelis, and Matthew E Falagas



The severity of critical illness is associated with various patterns of thyroid hormone abnormalities. We sought to evaluate whether the outcome of patients with, specifically, sepsis or septic shock is associated with the thyroid function tests evaluated at diagnosis or admission in the intensive care unit (ICU).


We performed a systematic review of relevant studies by searching PubMed.


We included nine studies that all had a prospective cohort design. Seven involved children or neonates, and two involved adults. Mortality was the outcome evaluated in eight studies, while the length of ICU stay was evaluated in the remaining study. In univariate analysis, six of the nine included studies showed that either, free or total, triiodothyronine or thyroxine was lower in the group of patients with sepsis or septic shock who had unfavorable outcome than in those who had favorable outcome. Two other studies showed higher TSH values in the group of patients with unfavorable outcome. No significant relevant findings were observed in the remaining study. Regarding the correlation of sepsis prognostic scoring systems with thyroid function tests, the three studies that provided specific relevant data showed variable findings.


Most of the relevant studies identified favor the concept that decreased thyroid function at baseline might be associated with a worse outcome of patients with sepsis or septic shock. Although these findings are not consistent, the role of thyroid function in affecting or merely predicting the outcome of sepsis or septic shock merits further investigation.

Open access

Catherine Peters and Nadia Schoenmakers

Transient congenital hypothyroidism (TCH) refers to congenital hypothyroidism which spontaneously resolves in the first few months or years of life. Currently, there is a paucity of reliable markers predicting TCH at diagnosis, and the diagnosis is established following the withdrawal of levothyroxine therapy around 3 years of age. The incidence of TCH is increasing, and it is a major contributor to the overall increase in the incidence of CH in recent studies. Both genetic factors, in particular mutations affecting DUOX2 and DUOXA2, and environmental factors, for example, iodine deficiency and excess, anti- TSHR antibodies and exposure to antithyroid or iodine-rich medications, may cause TCH. Resolution of TCH in childhood may reflect both normal thyroid physiology (decreased thyroid hormone biosynthesis requirements after the neonatal period) and clearance or cessation of environmental precipitants. The relative contributions and interactions of genetic and environmental factors to TCH, and the extent to which TCH may be prevented, require evaluation in future population-based studies.

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M. S. Laurent de Angulo and H. H. van Gelderen


An attempt has been made to determine the value of the lysine-8-vasopressin test when used together with the insulin-induced hypoglycaemia and the metyrapone test for the differentiation between hypothalamic and pituitary secondary adrenocortical insufficiency. This study was carried out in 65 children and adolescents with various disorders associated with growth retardation or overweight. The criteria for normal responses to the tests were based on findings in a 'control' group consisting of children with short stature without endocrinological disease. These criteria have been discussed in detail.

In the control group, the concordance between the results of each of the tests was good. As far as the groups with proven or possible hypothalamic and/or pituitary disorders were concerned, discrepancies between the LVP test results and those of the ITT were found in a considerably higher proportion of cases. The combination of an abnormal ITT and a normal LVP test was encountered significantly more often than the reverse situation. This is in agreement with the hypothesis that LVP acts directly on the adenohypophysis while ITT acts at the hypothalamic or higher levels. The LVP test seems to be a valuable additionto the tests of hypothalamic-hypophyseal function.

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Gerhard Ulrich Exner, Andrea Prader, Urs Elsasser, and Max Anliker


125I Computed Tomography (CT) allows for the selective determination of trabecular and compact bone mineral parameters in the radius. Using this technique the effects of high dose oestrogen treatment in 11 tall girls, and of high dose testosterone treatment in 5 tall boys were monitored. In both groups trabecular bone density (TBD) increased steadily during treatment at a rate of about 1% per month. Also in both groups the compact bone mineral increased steadily. These results are compared with those from a cross sectional study on 49 normal children and 36 normal adults, in whom TBD was found to be independent of age and sex, so that the increases in TBD in both treatment groups can be attributed directly to the influence of the sex hormones. Since the compact bone mineral is higher in adults than in children it cannot yet be decided whether the increases seen in the treated patients are related to the sex hormone treatment, or reflect only the normal development of the bone during adolescence.