Pituitary dysfunction is now well recognised after traumatic brain injury (TBI) in adults; however, little except anecdotal evidence is known about this potential complication in childhood and adolescence. Histopathological evidence exists for both hypothalamic and pituitary damage, but few data specific to children have been published. We review the available paediatric data, which shows that after both mild and severe TBI, hypopituitarism may occur, with GH and gonadotrophin deficiencies appearing to be most common. Precocious puberty has also been documented. Road-traffic accidents, falls, sport and child abuse are the most common aetiological factors for paediatric TBI. There are no published data on the incidence or prevalence, neither within a population of children with TBI, of hypopituitarism, nor on its natural history or response to hormone replacement. We urge paediatric endocrinologists, in collaboration with adult endocrinologists, to perform formal prospective research studies in patients suffering from TBI to clarify these questions.
Carlo L Acerini, Robert C Tasker, Simonetta Bellone, Gianni Bona, Christopher J Thompson, and Martin O Savage
Helen L Storr and Martin O Savage
Cushing's disease (CD) is the commonest form of ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome and is a rare clinical diagnosis in paediatric and adolescent patients. CD is caused by an ACTH-secreting pituitary corticotroph adenoma and is associated with significant morbidity in children; therefore, early diagnosis and treatment are critical for optimal therapeutic outcome. This review highlights the key clinical and biochemical features of paediatric CD and appraises current practices in diagnosis and management. A close liaison with adult endocrinology colleagues, particularly, for interpretation of investigations and definition of therapeutic strategy is strongly advised.
Valérie Bernard, Bruno Donadille, Tiphaine Le Poulennec, Mariana Nedelcu, Laetitia Martinerie, and Sophie Christin-Maitre
Turner syndrome (TS), affecting 1/2000 to 1/2500 live born girls, is a chromosomal aberration with a total or partial loss of one of the X chromosomes. The diagnosis can be established from the intra-uterine life to adulthood. TS is a chronic disease with particular morbidity and mortality. The loss to follow-up rate, during transition, between children and adult units, remains a crucial issue. This review focusses on the adolescent and young adult patients with TS. The different goals of TS transition are presented as well as some of the tools available in order to improve this transition. The involvement of the patient’s family, advocacy groups and therapeutic educational programs are discussed. A specificity concerning TS transition, as compared to other chronic diseases, relies on the fact that patients with TS may present a peculiar neurocognitive profile. They are in general more anxious than the general population. Therefore, psychological support should be offered to optimize transition. Data illustrating the beneficial impact of an organised transition of TS, from paediatric units to multidisciplinary adult care systems, within the same reference centre are presented. Further studies are required to evaluate the mid-to-long-term transition of paediatric patients with TS referred to adult units.
P E Clayton, R C Cuneo, A Juul, J P Monson, S M Shalet, and M Tauber
The European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology held a consensus workshop in Manchester, UK in December 2003 to discuss issues relating to the care of GH-treated patients in the transition from paediatric to adult life. Clinicians experienced in the care of paediatric and adult patients on GH treatment, from a wide range of countries, as well as medical representatives from the pharmaceutical manufacturers of GH participated.
MO Savage, WM Drake, PV Carroll, and JP Monson
While the benefits of growth hormone (GH) therapy in adult hypopituitary patients with GH deficiency (GHD) are established, the role of continued GH therapy after final height in adolescent GH-deficient patients remains unclear. Preliminary data suggest that cessation of GH on completion of linear growth may be associated with impairment of somatic development and adverse changes in body composition. For the present time, the decision whether to continue GH treatment in adolescent patients with GHD is best made on an individual basis. For such patients, continuity of care is crucial. Children and adults with GHD are usually managed by physicians in separate departments, who may focus on different aspects of treatment and care. Close collaboration between paediatric and adult physicians is essential to ensure smooth transition and to minimize the drop-out rate from follow-up. Given the previous period of treatment during childhood, paediatric physicians should be best placed to discuss the potential benefits of continuing GH therapy and instigate retesting of GH secretion. Many children with isolated idiopathic GHD will produce normal GH responses if retested at adult height. Patients with multiple pituitary hormone deficits are more likely to have ongoing GHD, as are patients who have received CNS irradiation. Quality of life does not appear to be decreased in adolescents with GHD who stop treatment, so achievement of satisfactory bone mass is a major determinant of the decision whether to continue therapy.
The term premature pubarche is given to conditions in which there is precocious growth of sexual hair (pubes and axillary hair) without any other symptoms of precocious puberty, i. e. without development of the genitals and, in girls, without growth of the breasts. Girls do not become virilized as in the case of the adrenogenital syndrome.
The series of cases comprises 17 patients, 12 girls and 5 boys. The symptoms in the former were observed before the age of 8, and in the latter before the age of 9 years. The patients were from the Dronning Louises Børnehospital (children's hospital, Copenhagen), the Paediatric Department of the University Hospital, Copenhagen, and 5 homes for the mentally defective: Andersvænge, Brejning, Ebberødgård, Ribe and Rødbygård.
Twelve of the patients had severe cerebral disorder, they were all mentally retarded, seven had epilepsy and seven spastic pareses. Four were blind, two had a coloboma of
Claus H Gravholt, Niels H Andersen, Gerard S Conway, Olaf M Dekkers, Mitchell E Geffner, Karen O Klein, Angela E Lin, Nelly Mauras, Charmian A Quigley, Karen Rubin, David E Sandberg, Theo C J Sas, Michael Silberbach, Viveca Söderström-Anttila, Kirstine Stochholm, Janielle A van Alfen-van derVelden, Joachim Woelfle, Philippe F Backeljauw, and On behalf of the International Turner Syndrome Consensus Group
Turner syndrome affects 25–50 per 100,000 females and can involve multiple organs through all stages of life, necessitating multidisciplinary approach to care. Previous guidelines have highlighted this, but numerous important advances have been noted recently. These advances cover all specialty fields involved in the care of girls and women with TS. This paper is based on an international effort that started with exploratory meetings in 2014 in both Europe and the USA, and culminated with a Consensus Meeting held in Cincinnati, Ohio, USA in July 2016. Prior to this meeting, five groups each addressed important areas in TS care: 1) diagnostic and genetic issues, 2) growth and development during childhood and adolescence, 3) congenital and acquired cardiovascular disease, 4) transition and adult care, and 5) other comorbidities and neurocognitive issues. These groups produced proposals for the present guidelines. Additionally, four pertinent questions were submitted for formal GRADE (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation) evaluation with a separate systematic review of the literature. These four questions related to the efficacy and most optimal treatment of short stature, infertility, hypertension, and hormonal replacement therapy. The guidelines project was initiated by the European Society of Endocrinology and the Pediatric Endocrine Society, in collaboration with the European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology, the Endocrine Society, the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology, the American Heart Association, the Society for Endocrinology, and the European Society of Cardiology. The guideline has been formally endorsed by the European Society of Endocrinology, the Pediatric Endocrine Society, the European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology, the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology and the Endocrine Society. Advocacy groups appointed representatives who participated in pre-meeting discussions and in the consensus meeting.
H L Storr, K I Alexandraki, L Martin, A M Isidori, G A Kaltsas, J P Monson, G M Besser, M Matson, J Evanson, F Afshar, I Sabin, M O Savage, and A B Grossman
There are few published comparisons between paediatric and adult-onset Cushing's disease (CD). We compare the epidemiology, diagnostic features and cure rate by transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) in these groups.
Retrospective review of patient databases in a single university hospital centre.
Totally, 41 paediatric (mean age 12.3±3.5 years; range 5.7–17.8) and 183 adult (mean age 40±13 years; range 18.0–95.0) patients with CD were investigated.
Paediatric CD was characterised by male (63%) and adult CD by a female predominance (79%, P<0.0001). There were small but significant differences in clinical presentation. Biochemical features of CD were comparable except the serum cortisol increase during a CRH test: mean change (105%, n=39) in paediatric and (54%, n=123) in adult subjects (P<0.0001). Macroadenomas were more common in adult (15%, 28/183) than in paediatric (2%, 1/41, P=0.04) CD. Corticotroph microadenomas were more easily visualised by pituitary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in adult (76%, 50/66) compared with paediatric (55%, 21/38, P=0.045) CD with poorer concordance of imaging with surgical findings in children (P=0.058). The incidence of ACTH lateralisation by bilateral simultaneous inferior petrosal sinus sampling was comparable in paediatric (76%, 25/33) and adult (79%, 46/58; P=0.95) patients with good surgical concordance in both (82% paediatric and 79% adult). Cure rates by TSS were comparable, with a paediatric cure rate of 69%.
Several features of paediatric CD are distinct: increased frequency of prepubertal CD in males, the different clinical presentation, the decreased presence of macroadenomas and the frequent absence of radiological evidence of an adenoma on MRI.
Robin Michelet, Johanna Melin, Zinnia P. Parra-Guillen, Uta Neumann, J Martin Whitaker, Viktoria Stachanow, Wilhelm Huisinga, John Porter, Oliver Blankenstein, Richard J. Ross, and Charlotte Kloft
Accurate hydrocortisone dosing in children with adrenal insufficiency is important to avoid the risks of over and under treatment including iatrogenic Cushing’s syndrome and adrenal crisis.
To establish a population pharmacokinetic model of hydrocortisone in children and use this to refine hydrocortisone replacement regimens.
Design and methods:
Pharmacokinetic study of hydrocortisone granules, available in 0.5, 1, 2 and 5 mg dose strengths, in 24 children with adrenal insufficiency aged 2 weeks to 6 years. Cortisol concentrations quantified by LC-MS/MS were used to refine an adult pharmacokinetic model to a paediatric population model which was then used to simulate seven different hydrocortisone treatment regimens.
Pre-dose cortisol levels were undetectable in 54% of the 24 children. The developed pharmacokinetic model had good predictive performance. Simulations for the seven treatment regimens using either three- or four-times daily dosing showed treatment regimens delivered an AUC0- 24h within the 90% reference range for healthy children except in neonates where two regimens had an AUC below the 5th percentile. Cortisol concentrations at individual time points in the 24 h were outside the 90% reference range for healthy individuals in 50%, 55–65% and 70–75% for children, infants and neonates, respectively, with low cortisol levels being most prevalent.
Current paediatric hydrocortisone treatment regimens based on either three- or four-times daily administration replicate cortisol exposure based on AUC0- 24h, but the majority of cortisol levels are above or below physiological cortisol levels with low levels very common before the next dose.
A Natarajan, JK Wales, SS Marven, and NP Wright
A 6-month-old girl was referred with breast and pubic hair development. Investigations excluded an adrenal or central cause for her precocity. Ovarian ultrasound scans showed bilaterally enlarged ovaries with both solid and cystic changes. A follow-up examination suggested progression of the precocity and in view of the young age of the child, and concerns regarding underlying malignancy, she underwent laparotomy. Histology showed no evidence of neoplasia but there was stromal oedema consistent with a diagnosis of massive ovarian oedema. This entity is poorly recognised in the paediatric literature as a cause of sexual precocity, and has never previously been described in such a young patient. This is an unusual cause of precocity in a young child and its recognition and management are reviewed.