Plasma gonadotrophins (LH and FSH) were radio-immunoassayed before and after injection of 0.1 mg/m2 of synthetic luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) in infants 1 to 12 months old, prepubertal children aged more than 12 months, and pubertal subjects of both sexes. The pubertal changes of gonadotrophins include a highly significant increase of LH pituitary mobilizable reserve in both sexes, while the FSH reserve shows a significant decrease in females and no significant variation in males. From the first year of life up to childhood, the basal blood levels of FSH and LH decrease significantly in girls but do not vary in boys, while the FSH reserve decreases significantly in girls and increases significantly in boys, the LH reserve showing a non-significant decrease in both sexes. In the first year of life, girls show a very significantly higher FSH secretion and reserve than boys, while boys have a significantly higher LH reserve than girls. After the end of the first year up to the onset of puberty, the FSH reserve remains significantly higher in girls than in boys. The interpretation of these facts is discussed.