Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is the most common congenital endocrine disorder. The early treatment of CH patients has successfully improved the prognosis and management of this disorder. Optimal treatment and management throughout the patient's life, beginning in the neonatal period, are required to ensure long-term health. Affected patients should be offered assessments of associated medical conditions and provided with accurate information about their condition throughout their lives, but particularly during the transition from pediatric to adult services. This review provides a summary of current knowledge about the long-term outcomes of these patients and appropriate management into early adulthood. We carried out a systematic search of the Medline database to identify relevant articles. Despite major improvements in prognosis, the impact of CH is clearly not uniform, and management should take into account a broader range of relevant indicators, including CH severity, associated comorbid conditions and the adequacy of treatment during childhood and adulthood. The early diagnosis and management of associated medical conditions, and better educational strategies to improve compliance with treatment, should improve the long-term prognosis. Further studies are required to explore changes with aging.
G.J. BRUINING, A.N BOSSCHAART, R.S.R. AARSEN, S.W.J. LAMBERTS, P.J.J. SAUER, and E. DEL POZO
A female child was admitted to the hospital few days after birth with severe hypoglycemia and convulsive episodes. Plasma insulin levels were elevated and oral and intravenous administration of glucose were unable to keep blood glucose above 2 mmol/l limit. Intravenous infusion of a long acting somatostatin analog, SMS 201-995, at a dosage gradually increasing from 2 to 50 μg/24 hr, was accompanied by a dramatic fall in circulating insulin levels. Normality of glucose homeostasis was restored and convulsive spells ceased. Fasting blood glucose levels stabilized between 3.4 and 4.7 mmol/l. No rebound phenomenon was observed during short term interruptions of the SMS 201-995 infusion. A subtotal pancreatectomy was performed during SMS treatment, and the diagnosis of nesidioblastosis was confirmed by immunocytologic and electron-microscopic studies. It is concluded that this new potent and long acting somatostatin derivative may be useful in the management of hyperinsulinism in the neonate.
D. B. GRANT, D. B. DUNGER, and E. C. BURNS
This paper reviews the outcome in 12 children with hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia who first developed symptoms between the ages of 2 and 8 months and who were treated with diazoxide (5 - 20 mg/kg/day) for 2-13 years. Two cases required subtotal pancreatectomy at the ages of 5 and 10 years because of recurrent hypoglycaemia and one girl with severe retardation died at the age of 6 years while still on diazoxide therapy. Two patients aged 3.5 and 9 years are still on treatment and in 7 cases diazoxide was discontinued between the ages of 2.5 and 14 years, indicating that spontaneous remission can be expected in a high proportion of children with post-neonatal hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia. Of the 9 children who started diazoxide within 3 months of the onset of symptoms, 5 are of normal intelligence and 4 are moderately retarded (IQs 63-71). In 3 children diazoxide was started 8 months to 3 years after the onset of symptoms; two are retarded (IQs 60-70) and the third was severely retarded and died aged 6 years.
K Mazor-Aronovitch, D Gillis, D Lobel, H J Hirsch, O Pinhas-Hamiel, D Modan-Moses, B Glaser, and H Landau
Background: Congenital hyperinsulinism (CH) is treated surgically in many centers (near-total and partial pancreatectomy for diffuse and focal disease respectively). Most patients treated with near-total pancreatectomy developed diabetes during childhood/puberty. CH patients are at increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders, some being severe, which are reported to occur in 14–44% of patients from highly heterogenous cohorts. Over the last few decades, we have treated children with CH conservatively without surgery. The aim of this study was to assess the neurodevelopmental outcome of these patients.
Design and methods: The study included 21 Ashkenazi CH medically treated patients: 11 homozygotes (diffuse disease) and 9 heterozygotes with mutations on the paternal allele (presumed focal disease). The mean age was 13.7 years (range 8–23). Neurodevelopmental outcomes were assessed by telephone interviews of parents, using a standard questionnaire. Closest age siblings of CH patients served as controls.
Results: Ten CH patients had perinatal seizures of short duration. Four had post-neonatal seizures, which remitted entirely. During early childhood, four patients (19%) had hypotonia, eight (38%) had fine motor problems, seven (33%) had gross motor problems (clumsiness), and one had mild cerebral palsy. Three patients (14%) had speech problems. Eight patients required developmental therapy, compared to one in the control group. Most of these problems were resolved by age 4–5 years. At school age, all were enrolled in regular education, some excelled in their studies, 6 out of 21 patients (29%) had learning problems (2 out of 21 controls). None had overt diabetes.
Conclusions: Good neurodevelopmental outcome was observed in our conservatively treated CH patients, with no diabetes as reported in patients undergoing pancreatectomy.
N Benhadi, W M Wiersinga, J B Reitsma, T G M Vrijkotte, and G J Bonsel
To examine the relationship between maternal TSH and free thyroxine (FT4) concentrations in early pregnancy and the risk of miscarriage, fetal or neonatal death.
Cohort study of 2497 Dutch women. TSH, FT4, and thyroid peroxidase antibodies concentrations were determined at first booking. Child loss was operationalized as miscarriage, fetal or neonatal death. Women with overt thyroid dysfunction were excluded.
Twenty-seven cases of child loss were observed. The mean TSH and FT4 level in the women with child loss was 1.48 mU/l and 9.82 pmol/l compared with 1.11 mU/l and 9.58 pmol/l in women without child loss. The incidence of child loss increased by 60% (OR=1.60 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04–2.47)) for every doubling in TSH concentration. This association remained after adjustment for smoking, age, parity, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, previous preterm deliveries, and previous preterm stillbirth/miscarriage (adjusted odds ratio=1.80 (95% CI: 1.07–3.03)). This was not true for FT4 concentrations (OR=1.41 (95% CI: 0.21–9.40); P=0.724).
In a cohort of pregnant women without overt thyroid dysfunction, the risk of child loss increased with higher levels of maternal TSH. Maternal FT4 concentrations and child loss were not associated.
D Zenaty, Y Aigrain, M Peuchmaur, P Philippe-Chomette, C Baumann, F Cornelis, J P Hugot, D Chevenne, V Barbu, P J Guillausseau, M Schlumberger, J C Carel, J P Travagli, and J Léger
Early prophylactic thyroidectomy in patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type 2 offers the best chance for a normal life expectancy.
To analyze the results of thyroidectomy performed during the first year of life in six patients with MEN 2A (codon 634) or MEN 2B (codon 918) syndrome.
Design and setting
A university hospital-based prospective study from 2001 to 2008.
Subjects and methods
Six family members affected either by MEN 2A (n=3) or MEN 2B (n=3) syndrome were identified through neonatal genetic screening.
Total thyroidectomy was performed at a median age of 0.8 year in the six patients, with central lymph node dissection in five. Bilateral millimetric medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) was found in all patients, with a unilateral lymph node micrometastasis in two of the three MEN 2B patients. Before thyroidectomy, MEN 2B patients had much higher basal serum calcitonin levels than those with MEN 2A and controls. After thyroidectomy, with a median follow-up of 3.3 years, the six patients had no evidence of persistent MTC.
Bilateral millimetric MTC may be present during the first year of life in these patients, with lymph node metastases also occurring in MEN 2B patients. These results support a total thyroidectomy at the age of about one year in MEN 2A (codon 634) children with an abnormal serum calcitonin level, and a total thyroidectomy with central neck dissection within the first weeks of life in MEN 2B patients.
A Waylen and D Wolke
This is a brief review of the normal changes in adolescent behaviour and the interplay between biology and social factors that occur at and around puberty, in an attempt to explain when this transition may become problematic The onset of puberty is a biological marker for an individual's transition from a non-reproductive to a reproductive state. Adolescence is a normal developmental transition associated with clearly visible physical changes, reorganization and pruning of neuronal circuits in the brain and the occurrence of new behaviours and interests. It is a time when new life tasks (orientation towards peers of the other sex, romantic and sexual involvement and mastering an educational career) need to be mastered. Parent-child conflict increases and becomes more intense as the adolescent struggles for more independence while still requiring support. These normal changes can become problematic if biological and social expectations diverge e.g. entering puberty very early or very late. While early pubertal onset in boys is likely to have beneficial effects, in girls precocious pubertal timing may have a negative impact on body-image, affect (or emotional well-being) and sex-role expectations. Other individual biological predispositions and genetic endowment may interact with social factors (e.g. peers, parenting style, neighbourhood) making adolescence either an adaptive or a challenging transition. There is a lack of sufficiently large longitudinal studies that have been able to study this interaction between genetics, biology and social environment on adolescent development. The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort provides a unique opportunity to investigate the impact of pubertal timing on social behaviour. Planned assessments and concepts are outlined.
Ponce Cedric Fouejeu Wamba, Jie Mi, Xiao-Yuan Zhao, Mei-Xian Zhang, Yu Wen, Hong Cheng, Dong-Qing Hou, and Katherine Cianflone
Childhood obesity is increasing worldwide and is increasingly associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Our aim was to examine acylation stimulating protein (ASP) and its precursor complement C3, in normal, overweight, and obese Chinese children and adolescents, and the relationships with body size, blood parameters, pubertal development, family environment, and MetS.
Children and adolescents (n=1603) from 6 to 18 years, boys (n=873) and girls (n=730), including normal weight (n=603), overweight (n=291) and obese (n=709) were assessed for body size parameters, pubertal development, blood lipids, glucose, insulin, ASP, and C3.
ASP levels were increased in overweight and obese versus normal weight (P<0.001), while C3 showed little variation. This effect of overweight/obesity remained throughout early stages when boys and girls were separated by pubertal development or age, although age and pubertal status itself had no effect. Separation based on ASP quintiles demonstrated significant associations with blood cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-Chol), glucose, insulin, and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance in boys, and LDL-Chol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and glucose in girls. A positive correlation with mother's body mass index in boys and girls (P=0.002 and P=0.014 respectively) as well as birth weight (P<0.001) was noted. MetS was strongly associated with increased ASP, the presence of a single MetS factor (especially hypertension, central obesity, or hyperglycemia) was associated with increased ASP.
Changes in the plasma adipokine ASP in early obesity are associated with blood lipid and glucose modifications, family environment, and distinct MetS risk factors.
Myriam Rosilio, Jean-Claude Carel, Emmanuel Ecosse, and Jean-Louis Chaussainon
Group-author : on behalf of the 0908 Lilly Study Group
Objective: Human GH (hGH) treatment leads to catch-up growth in children with short stature born small for gestational age (SGA). However, long-term efficacy and safety results in this patient group remain scarce. The present study assessed the efficacy and safety of late childhood treatment with biosynthetic hGH (Humatrope) in a group of short children born SGA (height <−2 standard deviation scores (SDS)).
Design: Patients in this open-label, Phase III, multicenter study received a daily hGH dose of 0.067 mg/kg for 2 years, and then received no treatment for the following 2 years. After the fourth year on study, patients whose height had decreased more than 0.5 SDS but who still showed growth potential based on bone age were allowed to resume treatment until they reached adult height.
Methods: Height gain SDS was assessed for 11 girls and 24 boys (mean age±s.d. 9.6±0.9 years) at the end of the 2 years of hGH treatment, during the subsequent 2-year off-treatment period, and upon reaching adult height.
Results: At the end of the initial 2-year treatment period, 83% of patients had reached a height within the normal range, with a mean increase in height SDS vs baseline of 1.3±0.3 (P <0.001). Adult heights (n = 20) were within the normal range for 50% of patients, and mean height gain from baseline was statistically significant (0.7±0.8 SDS, P <0.001). Fasting glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin levels were not significantly modified during treatment.
Conclusions: High-dose hGH treatment for a minimum of 2 years in short children born SGA was well tolerated and resulted in a significant increase in adolescent and adult height.
Felix G Riepe, Wiebke Ahrens, Nils Krone, Regina Fölster-Holst, Jochen Brasch, Wolfgang G Sippell, Olaf Hiort, and Carl-Joachim Partsch
Objective: To clarify the molecular defect for the clinical finding of congenital hypothyroidism combined with the manifestation of calcinosis cutis in infancy.
Case report: The male patient presented with moderately elevated blood thyrotropin levels at neonatal screening combined with slightly decreased plasma thyroxine and tri-iodothyronine concentrations, necessitating thyroid hormone substitution 2 weeks after birth. At the age of 7 months calcinosis cutis was seen and the patient underwent further investigation. Typical features of Albright’s hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO), including round face, obesity and delayed psychomotor development, were found.
Methods and results: Laboratory investigation revealed a resistance to parathyroid hormone (PTH) with highly elevated PTH levels and a reduction in adenylyl cyclase-stimulating protein (Gsα) activity leading to the diagnosis of pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ia (PHP Ia). A novel heterozygous mutation (c364T > G in exon 5, leading to the amino acid substitution Ile-106 → Ser) was detected in the GNAS gene of the patient. This mutation was not found in the patient’s parents, both of whom showed normal Gsα protein activity in erythrocytes and no features of AHO. A de novo mutation is therefore likely.
Conclusions: Subcutaneous calcifications in infancy should prompt the clinician to a thorough search for an underlying disease. The possibility of AHO and PHP Ia should be considered in children with hypothyroidism and calcinosis cutis. Systematic reviews regarding the frequency of calcinosis in AHO are warranted.