Search Results

You are looking at 81 - 90 of 1,602 items for

  • Abstract: adolescen* x
  • Abstract: boy* x
  • Abstract: child* x
  • Abstract: girl* x
  • Abstract: neonat* x
  • Refine by Access: All content x
Clear All Modify Search
Free access

Juliane Léger, Isabelle Mercat, Corinne Alberti, Didier Chevenne, Priscilla Armoogum, Jean Tichet, and Paul Czernichow



There is evidence to suggest that IGF-I plays a role in regulating bone turnover.


To evaluate the relationships between serum concentrations of IGF-I and IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), and bone metabolism markers in healthy children.

Design and setting

Prospective cross-sectional study.

Subjects and methods

A cohort of 579 boys and 540 girls, all healthy Caucasian, were included in this study. Serum IGF-I and IGFBP-3 concentrations, bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP) and CrossLaps (markers of bone formation and bone resorption respectively) levels were evaluated as a function of age, gender, pubertal stage and body mass index.


Serum IGF-I SDS levels were positively correlated with BAP and CrossLaps SDS levels before and after puberty, and also with CrossLaps during puberty (weak correlation). Serum IGFBP-3 SDS levels were positively correlated with BAP and CrossLaps levels before, during (weak correlation) and after puberty (for BAP levels only).


This study demonstrated the independent association between serum IGF-I and IGFBP-3 concentrations with both serum bone formation and resorption markers in healthy children. Physiological differences before, during and after puberty in the association of serum IGF-I and IGFBP-3 levels with the serum bone metabolism markers were found. These differences may be related to differences in interactions between sex steroid hormones and the GH/IGF-I system, bone metabolism and growth during the pubertal transition. Improvements in our understanding of life course determinants of the IGF-I system and bone metabolism are required to shed further light on the role of the GH/IGF-I axis in bone remodelling.

Free access

P Dimitri, J T Warner, J A L Minton, A M Patch, S Ellard, A T Hattersley, S Barr, D Hawkes, J K Wales, and J W Gregory


Mutations in the GLI-similar 3 (GLIS3) gene encoding the transcription factor GLIS3 are a rare cause of neonatal diabetes and congenital hypothyroidism with six affected cases from three families reported to date. Additional features, described previously, include congenital glaucoma, hepatic fibrosis, polycystic kidneys, developmental delay and facial dysmorphism.


We report two new cases from unrelated families with distinct novel homozygous partial GLIS3 deletions. Both patients presented with neonatal diabetes mellitus, severe resistant hypothyroidism in the presence of elevated thyroglobulin and normal thyroid anatomy, degenerative liver disease, cystic renal dysplasia, recurrent infections and facial dysmorphism. These novel mutations have also resulted in osteopenia, bilateral sensorineural deafness and pancreatic exocrine insufficiency, features that have not previously been associated with GLIS3 mutations. Gene dosage analysis showed that the parents were carriers of a deletion encompassing exons 1–2 (case 1) or exons 1–4 (case 2) of the 11 exon gene. Genome-wide SNP analysis did not reveal a common ancestral GLIS3 haplotype in patient 2.


Our results confirm partial gene deletions as the most common type of GLIS3 mutations, accounting for four of five families identified to date. We propose that mutations in GLIS3 lead to a wider clinical phenotype than previously recognised. We also report the first case of a recessive GLIS3 mutation causing neonatal diabetes and congenital hypothyroidism in a child from a non-consanguineous pedigree, highlighting the importance of molecular genetic testing in any patient with this phenotype.

Free access

Katarina Sedej, Primož Kotnik, Magdalena Avbelj Stefanija, Urh Grošelj, Andreja Širca Čampa, Lara Lusa, Tadej Battelino, and Nataša Bratina


Overweight/obesity in children is a worldwide public health problem. Together with hypercholesterolaemia they are associated with early atherosclerotic complications.


In this study, we aimed to investigate the anthropometric characteristics and total cholesterol (TC) levels in a population of 5-year-old children, to determine trends in the prevalence of overweight/obesity and hypercholesterolaemia in 5-year-old children over a period of 8 years (2001–2009) and to assess the impact of modified national nutritional guidelines for kindergartens implemented in 2005.


Cross-sectional studies of overweight/obesity prevalence in the years 2001, 2003–2005 and 2009, and hypercholesterolaemia in years 2001 and 2009, in 5-year-old children.


Altogether, 12 832 (6308 girls/6524 boys) children were included.


Overweight/obesity was defined by IOTF criteria. Hypercholesterolaemia was defined by TC level >5 mmol/l. Multivariable logistic regression models were used.


No correlation between BMI values and TC levels was found. Overweight and obesity prevalence were stabilised from 2001 to 2009 (odds ratio (OR) (95% CI): 1.13 (0.99–1.3) and 1.13 (0.89–1.42) respectively). Girls were more frequently overweight/obese than boys (OR (95% CI): 0.71 (0.65–0.79) and 0.75 (0.64–0.89) respectively). Prevalence of hypercholesterolaemia significantly decreased from 2001 to 2009 (OR (95% CI): 0.47 (0.41–0.55)). It was less frequent in boys than in girls (OR (95% CI): O.7 (0.61–0.8)).


This is the first study to describe a negative trend in the prevalence of hypercholesterolaemia in pre-pubertal children. In addition, the prevalence of overweight/obesity in these children has been stabilised. Nationwide changes in public health policies could have influenced these observations.

Restricted access

Philippe E. Gamier, Jean-Louis Chaussain, Elisabeth Binet, Ariane Schlumberger, and Jean-Claude Job


Plasma gonadotrophins (LH and FSH) were radio-immunoassayed before and after injection of 0.1 mg/m2 of synthetic luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) in infants 1 to 12 months old, prepubertal children aged more than 12 months, and pubertal subjects of both sexes. The pubertal changes of gonadotrophins include a highly significant increase of LH pituitary mobilizable reserve in both sexes, while the FSH reserve shows a significant decrease in females and no significant variation in males. From the first year of life up to childhood, the basal blood levels of FSH and LH decrease significantly in girls but do not vary in boys, while the FSH reserve decreases significantly in girls and increases significantly in boys, the LH reserve showing a non-significant decrease in both sexes. In the first year of life, girls show a very significantly higher FSH secretion and reserve than boys, while boys have a significantly higher LH reserve than girls. After the end of the first year up to the onset of puberty, the FSH reserve remains significantly higher in girls than in boys. The interpretation of these facts is discussed.

Free access

Leo Dunkel and Richard Quinton

Puberty is the period during which we attain adult secondary sexual characteristics and reproductive capability. Its onset depends upon reactivation of pulsative GNRH, secretion from its relative quiescence during childhood, on the background of intact potential for pituitary–gonadal function. This review is intended: to highlight those current practices in diagnosis and management that are evidence based and those that are not; to help clinicians deal with areas of uncertainty with reference to physiologic first principles; by sign-posting relevant data arising from other patient groups with shared issues; to illustrate how recent scientific advances are (or should be) altering clinician perceptions of pubertal delay; and finally, to emphasise that the management of men and women presenting in advanced adult life with absent puberty cannot simply be extrapolated from paediatric practice. There is a broad spectrum of pubertal timing that varies among different populations, separated in time and space. Delayed puberty usually represents an extreme of the normal, a developmental pattern referred to as constitutional delay of growth and puberty (CDGP), but organic defects of the hypothalamo–pituitary–gonadal axis predisposing to hypogonadism may not always be initially distinguishable from it. CDGP and organic, or congenital hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism are both significantly more common in boys than girls. Moreover, around 1/3 of adults with organic hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism had evidence of partial puberty at presentation and, confusingly, some 5–10% of these subsequently may exhibit recovery of endogenous gonadotrophin secretion, including men with Kallmann syndrome. However, the distinction is crucial as expectative (‘watch-and-wait’) management is inappropriate in the context of hypogonadism. The probability of pubertal delay being caused by organic hypogonadism rises exponentially both with increasing age at presentation and the presence of associated ‘red flag’ clinical features. These ‘red flags’ comprise findings indicating lack of prior ‘mini-puberty’ (such as cryptorchidism or micropenis), or the presence of non-reproductive congenital defects known to be associated with specific hypogonadal syndromes, e.g. anosmia, deafness, mirror movements, renal agenesis, dental/digital anomalies, clefting or coloboma would be compatible with Kallmann (or perhaps CHARGE) syndrome. In children, interventions (whether in the form or treatment or simple reassurance) have been historically directed at maximising height potential and minimising psychosocial morbidity, though issues of future fertility and bone density potential are now increasingly ‘in the mix’. Apubertal adults almost invariably harbour organic hypogonadism, requiring sensitive acknowledgement of underlying personal issues and the timely introduction of sex hormone replacement therapy at more physiological doses.

Free access

Felix G Riepe, Wiebke Ahrens, Nils Krone, Regina Fölster-Holst, Jochen Brasch, Wolfgang G Sippell, Olaf Hiort, and Carl-Joachim Partsch

Objective: To clarify the molecular defect for the clinical finding of congenital hypothyroidism combined with the manifestation of calcinosis cutis in infancy.

Case report: The male patient presented with moderately elevated blood thyrotropin levels at neonatal screening combined with slightly decreased plasma thyroxine and tri-iodothyronine concentrations, necessitating thyroid hormone substitution 2 weeks after birth. At the age of 7 months calcinosis cutis was seen and the patient underwent further investigation. Typical features of Albright’s hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO), including round face, obesity and delayed psychomotor development, were found.

Methods and results: Laboratory investigation revealed a resistance to parathyroid hormone (PTH) with highly elevated PTH levels and a reduction in adenylyl cyclase-stimulating protein (Gsα) activity leading to the diagnosis of pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ia (PHP Ia). A novel heterozygous mutation (c364T > G in exon 5, leading to the amino acid substitution Ile-106 → Ser) was detected in the GNAS gene of the patient. This mutation was not found in the patient’s parents, both of whom showed normal Gsα protein activity in erythrocytes and no features of AHO. A de novo mutation is therefore likely.

Conclusions: Subcutaneous calcifications in infancy should prompt the clinician to a thorough search for an underlying disease. The possibility of AHO and PHP Ia should be considered in children with hypothyroidism and calcinosis cutis. Systematic reviews regarding the frequency of calcinosis in AHO are warranted.

Free access

T Meissner, U Wendel, P Burgard, S Schaetzle, and E Mayatepek

BACKGROUND: The term congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI) comprises a group of different genetic disorders with the common finding of recurrent episodes of hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical presentation, diagnostic criteria, treatment and long-term follow-up in a large cohort of CHI patients. PATIENTS: The data from 114 patients from different hospitals were obtained by a detailed questionnaire. Patients presented neonatally (65%), during infancy (28%) or during childhood (7%). RESULTS: In 20 of 74 (27%) patients with neonatal onset birth weight was greatly increased (group with standard deviation scores (SDS) >2.0) with a mean SDS of 3.2. Twenty-nine percent of neonatal-onset vs 69% of infancy/childhood-onset patients responded to diazoxide and diet or to a carbohydrate-enriched diet alone. Therefore, we observed a high rate of pancreatic surgery performed in the neonatal-onset group (70%) compared with the infancy/childhood-onset group (28%). Partial (3%), subtotal (37%) or near total (15%) pancreatectomy was performed. After pancreatic surgery there appeared a high risk of persistent hypoglycemia (40%). Immediately post-surgery or with a latency of several Years insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus was observed in operated patients (27%). General outcome was poor with a high degree of psychomotor or mental retardation (44%) or epilepsy (25%). An unfavorable outcome correlated with infancy-onset manifestation (chi(2)=6.1, P=0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The high degree of developmental delay, in particular in infancy-onset patients emphasizes the need for a change in treatment strategies to improve the unfavorable outcome. Evaluation of treatment alternatives should take the high risk of developing diabetes mellitus into account.

Free access

Carla Bizzarri, Antonello E Rigamonti, Antonella Luce, Marco Cappa, Silvano G Cella, Jenny Berini, Alessandro Sartorio, Eugenio E Müller, and Alessandro Salvatoni

Background and aims

Ghrelin is an orexigenic 28-amino acid peptide produced by the stomach. Circulating ghrelin levels rise shortly before and fall shortly after every meal. Peptide YY (PYY), an anorexigenic 36-amino acid peptide, is secreted primarily from the intestinal mucosa of the ileum and large intestine. Plasma PYY levels begin to rise within 15 min after starting to eat and plateau within ∼90 min, remaining elevated for up to 6 h. Recently, some studies have tried to evaluate the potential role of ghrelin and PYY in the hyperphagia of patients with Prader–Willi syndrome (PWS). While hyperghrelinemia is well characterized in PWS, conflicting results have been reported for PYY. The aim of the study was to investigate ghrelin and PYY responses to a standard liquid high-fat meal in children with PWS.

Patients and methods

Circulating levels of total ghrelin and PYY levels were assayed by RIA after overnight fasting and 45, 60, 90, and 180 min following a standard meal (Ensure 6 ml/kg) in 16 patients with PWS (11 boys and five girls, aged 4.6–10.7 years, including ten receiving 0.02 mg/kg per day rhGH for 2–18 months; body mass index (BMI) z-score: 0.6±0.2 and 1.6±0.5 for children treated or not treated with rhGH respectively), ten obese (eight boys and two girls, aged 9.2–15.6 years; BMI z-score: 2.4±0.2, i.e. BMI >97th centile for chronological age and sex) subjects, and 16 normal-weight controls (five boys and 11 girls, aged 5.8–17.3 years; BMI z-score: 0.6±0.2).


PWS children showed higher fasting levels of ghrelin than obese and lean controls. Postprandial ghrelin drop was more pronounced in PWS than in the other study groups. No significant difference on fasting levels of PYY was found among groups. PWS showed a higher postprandial PYY rise than obese and lean controls. PWS patients treated and not treated with GH showed similar fasting and postprandial levels of ghrelin and PYY. Fasting PYY levels correlated negatively (P<0.05; r=−0.68) with those of ghrelin only in PWS.


The results of this study confirm fasting hyperghrelinemia in PWS. Since in PWS adults an impaired postprandial suppression of plasma ghrelin was previously reported to be associated with a blunted postprandial PYY response, the finding of a meal-induced decrease and increase in ghrelin and PYY levels respectively in PWS children would imply that the regulation of appetite/satiety of these peptides is operative during childhood, and it progressively deteriorates and vanishes in adulthood when hyperphagia and obesity worsen.

Open access

Kristina Laugesen, Henrik Toft Sørensen, Jens Otto L Jorgensen, and Irene Petersen


Prenatal exposure to excess cortisol can affect postnatal metabolic health by epigenetic mechanisms. We aimed to investigate if prenatal exposure to pharmacological glucocorticoids increases the risk of overweight/obesity in childhood.


A nationwide population registry-based cohort study.


We identified 383 877 children born in Denmark (2007–2012), who underwent routine anthropometric evaluation at 5–8 years of age. Prenatal exposure to glucocorticoids was divided into systemic and topical glucocorticoids, cumulative systemic dose, and use by trimester. The comparison cohort included children without exposure, born to maternal never-users. Negative control exposures were used to investigate confounding from an underlying disease or unmeasured characteristics. Such exposures included children without glucocorticoid exposure born to maternal users of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or immunotherapy during pregnancy, maternal former users of glucocorticoids, or paternal users of glucocorticoids during the pregnancy of their partner. We estimated sex-stratified adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) of overweight/obesity at 5–8 years of age, as epigenetic modifications have shown to be sex-specific.


In the study, 21 246 (11%) boys and 27 851 (15%) girls were overweight/obese at 5–8 years of age. Overall, neither systemic nor topical glucocorticoids were associated with overweight/obesity. In boys, high-dose systemic glucocorticoids was associated with higher prevalence of overweight/obesity vs the comparison cohort (aPR: 1.41 (95% CI: 1.07–1.86), prevalence: 16% vs 11%). Negative control exposures indicated robustness to confounding.


Overweight/obesity might be an adverse effect of prenatal exposure to high-dose systemic glucocorticoids in boys. We found no association for neither prenatal exposure to lower doses of systemic nor topical glucocorticoids. These results merit clinical attention.

Free access

Juliane Léger

Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is the most common congenital endocrine disorder. The early treatment of CH patients has successfully improved the prognosis and management of this disorder. Optimal treatment and management throughout the patient's life, beginning in the neonatal period, are required to ensure long-term health. Affected patients should be offered assessments of associated medical conditions and provided with accurate information about their condition throughout their lives, but particularly during the transition from pediatric to adult services. This review provides a summary of current knowledge about the long-term outcomes of these patients and appropriate management into early adulthood. We carried out a systematic search of the Medline database to identify relevant articles. Despite major improvements in prognosis, the impact of CH is clearly not uniform, and management should take into account a broader range of relevant indicators, including CH severity, associated comorbid conditions and the adequacy of treatment during childhood and adulthood. The early diagnosis and management of associated medical conditions, and better educational strategies to improve compliance with treatment, should improve the long-term prognosis. Further studies are required to explore changes with aging.