Search Results

You are looking at 101 - 110 of 1,618 items for

  • Abstract: adolescen* x
  • Abstract: boy* x
  • Abstract: child* x
  • Abstract: girl* x
  • Abstract: neonat* x
  • Abstract: paediatric x
  • Refine by Access: All content x
Clear All Modify Search
Free access

CH Gravholt

Turner syndrome is one of the more common genetic disorders, associated with abnormalities of the X chromosome, and occurring in about 50 per 100 000 liveborn girls. Turner syndrome is usually associated with reduced adult height, gonadal dysgenesis and thus insufficient circulating levels of female sex steroids, and infertility. A number of other signs and symptoms are seen more frequently with the syndrome. Morbidity and mortality are increased. The average intellectual performance is within the normal range. A number of recent studies have provided new insights with respect to epidemiology, cardiology, endocrinology and metabolism. Treatment with GH during childhood and adolescence allows a considerable gain in adult height, although very-long-term consequences of this treatment are not clear. Puberty has to be induced in most cases, and female sex hormone replacement therapy is given during the adult years. The proper dose of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) has not been established, and, likewise, benefits and/or drawbacks from HRT have not been thoroughly evaluated. Since the risk of cardiovascular and endocrinological disease is clearly elevated, proper care during adulthood is emphasized. In summary, Turner syndrome is a condition associated with a number of diseases and conditions which are reviewed in the present paper.

Free access

Maik Welzel, Leyla Akin, Anja Büscher, Tülay Güran, Berthold P Hauffa, Wolfgang Högler, Julia Leonards, Beate Karges, Heiner Kentrup, Birgul Kirel, Emine Esin Yalinbas Senses, Neslihan Tekin, Paul-Martin Holterhus, and Felix G Riepe

Background

Pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1 (PHA1) is a monogenic disease caused by mutations in the genes encoding the human mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) or the α (SCNN1A), β (SCNN1B) or γ (SCNN1G) subunit of the epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC). While autosomal dominant mutation of the MR cause renal PHA1, autosomal recessive mutations of the ENaC lead to systemic PHA1. In the latter, affected children suffer from neonatal onset of multi-organ salt loss and often exhibit cystic fibrosis-like pulmonary symptoms.

Objective

We searched for underlying mutations in seven unrelated children with systemic PHA1, all offsprings of healthy consanguineous parents.

Methods and results

Amplification of the SCNN1A gene and sequencing of all 13 coding exons unraveled mutations in all of our patients. We found five novel homozygous mutations (c.587_588insC in two patients, c.1342_1343insTACA, c.742delG, c.189C>A, c.1361-2A>G) and one known mutation (c.1474C>T) leading to truncation of the αENaC protein. All parents were asymptomatic heterozygous carriers of the respective mutations, confirming the autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. Five out of seven patients exhibited pulmonary symptoms in the neonatal period.

Conclusion

The α subunit is essential for ENaC function and mutations truncating the pore-forming part of the protein leading to systemic PHA1. Based on current knowledge, the pulmonary phenotype cannot be satisfactorily predicted.

Free access

Carmen Freire, Rosa Ramos, Esperanza Amaya, Mariana F Fernández, Piedad Santiago-Fernández, Maria-Jose Lopez-Espinosa, Juan-Pedro Arrebola, and Nicolas Olea

Objective

An association between thyroid function during pregnancy or infancy and neurodevelopment in children has been demonstrated. We aimed to investigate whether newborn TSH concentrations are related to subsequent neurocognitive development.

Design

We conducted a longitudinal study on 178 children from a general population birth cohort in Granada (Spain) born in 2000–2002.

Methods

TSH concentrations were measured in umbilical cord blood, and cognitive functions were assessed at 4 years of age using the McCarthy's scales of children's abilities (MSCA). Organochlorine (OC) compound concentrations and the combined oestrogenicity (total effective xeno-oestrogenic burden (TEXB)) were also determined in the placentae.

Results

Mean newborn TSH was 3.55 mU/l (range=0.24–17 mU/l). In multivariate regression analyses, adjusting for maternal and child characteristics, higher newborn TSH concentrations showed a decrease of 3.51 and 3.15 points on the MSCA general cognitive and executive function scores respectively and were associated with a higher risk of scoring below the 20th percentile (P20) on the quantitative score (odds ratio (OR)=2.64). Children with TSH in the upper quartile (4.19–17.0 mU/l) were at higher risk of scoring <P20 on span memory (OR=5.73), whereas children with TSH in the second quartile (2.05–2.95 mU/l) were at lower risk of scoring <P20 on the verbal scale (OR=0.24). Neonatal TSH status was also associated with general cognitive and executive function outcomes when controlling for prenatal exposure to OCs or placental TEXB.

Conclusions

Newborn thyroid hormone status expressed by TSH in cord blood may adversely affect later cognitive function. A more thorough screening for neonatal thyroid deficiency is warranted.

Free access

Juliane Léger, Isabelle Mercat, Corinne Alberti, Didier Chevenne, Priscilla Armoogum, Jean Tichet, and Paul Czernichow

Abstract

Context

There is evidence to suggest that IGF-I plays a role in regulating bone turnover.

Objective

To evaluate the relationships between serum concentrations of IGF-I and IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), and bone metabolism markers in healthy children.

Design and setting

Prospective cross-sectional study.

Subjects and methods

A cohort of 579 boys and 540 girls, all healthy Caucasian, were included in this study. Serum IGF-I and IGFBP-3 concentrations, bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP) and CrossLaps (markers of bone formation and bone resorption respectively) levels were evaluated as a function of age, gender, pubertal stage and body mass index.

Results

Serum IGF-I SDS levels were positively correlated with BAP and CrossLaps SDS levels before and after puberty, and also with CrossLaps during puberty (weak correlation). Serum IGFBP-3 SDS levels were positively correlated with BAP and CrossLaps levels before, during (weak correlation) and after puberty (for BAP levels only).

Conclusions

This study demonstrated the independent association between serum IGF-I and IGFBP-3 concentrations with both serum bone formation and resorption markers in healthy children. Physiological differences before, during and after puberty in the association of serum IGF-I and IGFBP-3 levels with the serum bone metabolism markers were found. These differences may be related to differences in interactions between sex steroid hormones and the GH/IGF-I system, bone metabolism and growth during the pubertal transition. Improvements in our understanding of life course determinants of the IGF-I system and bone metabolism are required to shed further light on the role of the GH/IGF-I axis in bone remodelling.

Free access

Felix G Riepe, Wiebke Ahrens, Nils Krone, Regina Fölster-Holst, Jochen Brasch, Wolfgang G Sippell, Olaf Hiort, and Carl-Joachim Partsch

Objective: To clarify the molecular defect for the clinical finding of congenital hypothyroidism combined with the manifestation of calcinosis cutis in infancy.

Case report: The male patient presented with moderately elevated blood thyrotropin levels at neonatal screening combined with slightly decreased plasma thyroxine and tri-iodothyronine concentrations, necessitating thyroid hormone substitution 2 weeks after birth. At the age of 7 months calcinosis cutis was seen and the patient underwent further investigation. Typical features of Albright’s hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO), including round face, obesity and delayed psychomotor development, were found.

Methods and results: Laboratory investigation revealed a resistance to parathyroid hormone (PTH) with highly elevated PTH levels and a reduction in adenylyl cyclase-stimulating protein (Gsα) activity leading to the diagnosis of pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ia (PHP Ia). A novel heterozygous mutation (c364T > G in exon 5, leading to the amino acid substitution Ile-106 → Ser) was detected in the GNAS gene of the patient. This mutation was not found in the patient’s parents, both of whom showed normal Gsα protein activity in erythrocytes and no features of AHO. A de novo mutation is therefore likely.

Conclusions: Subcutaneous calcifications in infancy should prompt the clinician to a thorough search for an underlying disease. The possibility of AHO and PHP Ia should be considered in children with hypothyroidism and calcinosis cutis. Systematic reviews regarding the frequency of calcinosis in AHO are warranted.

Free access

P Dimitri, J T Warner, J A L Minton, A M Patch, S Ellard, A T Hattersley, S Barr, D Hawkes, J K Wales, and J W Gregory

Introduction

Mutations in the GLI-similar 3 (GLIS3) gene encoding the transcription factor GLIS3 are a rare cause of neonatal diabetes and congenital hypothyroidism with six affected cases from three families reported to date. Additional features, described previously, include congenital glaucoma, hepatic fibrosis, polycystic kidneys, developmental delay and facial dysmorphism.

Subjects

We report two new cases from unrelated families with distinct novel homozygous partial GLIS3 deletions. Both patients presented with neonatal diabetes mellitus, severe resistant hypothyroidism in the presence of elevated thyroglobulin and normal thyroid anatomy, degenerative liver disease, cystic renal dysplasia, recurrent infections and facial dysmorphism. These novel mutations have also resulted in osteopenia, bilateral sensorineural deafness and pancreatic exocrine insufficiency, features that have not previously been associated with GLIS3 mutations. Gene dosage analysis showed that the parents were carriers of a deletion encompassing exons 1–2 (case 1) or exons 1–4 (case 2) of the 11 exon gene. Genome-wide SNP analysis did not reveal a common ancestral GLIS3 haplotype in patient 2.

Conclusions

Our results confirm partial gene deletions as the most common type of GLIS3 mutations, accounting for four of five families identified to date. We propose that mutations in GLIS3 lead to a wider clinical phenotype than previously recognised. We also report the first case of a recessive GLIS3 mutation causing neonatal diabetes and congenital hypothyroidism in a child from a non-consanguineous pedigree, highlighting the importance of molecular genetic testing in any patient with this phenotype.

Free access

Margaret Cristina da Silva Boguszewski and Adriane de Andre Cardoso-Demartini

Approximately 15 million babies are born preterm across the world every year, with less than 37 completed weeks of gestation. Survival rates increased during the last decades with the improvement of neonatal care. With premature birth, babies are deprived of the intense intrauterine growth phase, and postnatal growth failure might occur. Some children born prematurely will remain short at later ages and adult life. The risk of short stature increases if the child is also born small for gestational age. In this review, the effects of being born preterm on childhood growth and adult height and the hormonal abnormalities possibly associated with growth restriction are discussed, followed by a review of current information on growth hormone treatment for those who remain with short stature during infancy and childhood.

Free access

N Benhadi, W M Wiersinga, J B Reitsma, T G M Vrijkotte, and G J Bonsel

Background

To examine the relationship between maternal TSH and free thyroxine (FT4) concentrations in early pregnancy and the risk of miscarriage, fetal or neonatal death.

Method

Cohort study of 2497 Dutch women. TSH, FT4, and thyroid peroxidase antibodies concentrations were determined at first booking. Child loss was operationalized as miscarriage, fetal or neonatal death. Women with overt thyroid dysfunction were excluded.

Results

Twenty-seven cases of child loss were observed. The mean TSH and FT4 level in the women with child loss was 1.48 mU/l and 9.82 pmol/l compared with 1.11 mU/l and 9.58 pmol/l in women without child loss. The incidence of child loss increased by 60% (OR=1.60 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04–2.47)) for every doubling in TSH concentration. This association remained after adjustment for smoking, age, parity, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, previous preterm deliveries, and previous preterm stillbirth/miscarriage (adjusted odds ratio=1.80 (95% CI: 1.07–3.03)). This was not true for FT4 concentrations (OR=1.41 (95% CI: 0.21–9.40); P=0.724).

Conclusion

In a cohort of pregnant women without overt thyroid dysfunction, the risk of child loss increased with higher levels of maternal TSH. Maternal FT4 concentrations and child loss were not associated.

Free access

Annette Mouritsen, Lise Aksglaede, Kaspar Soerensen, Casper P Hagen, J H Petersen, Katharina M Main, and Anders Juul

Background

Pubertal onset is usually defined by breast development in girls and testicular growth in boys. Pubarche is defined as the attainment of pubic hair and is considered as a sign of pubertal transition. Pubarche is preceded by a gradual increase in production of adrenal androgens, DHEA and Δ4-androstenedione (Adione), a process termed adrenarche.

Objective

To study the natural course of pubertal transition and the associations with adrenarche, body fat, and linear growth.

Design and methods

A longitudinal study of 179 healthy children (89 girls) with higher socioeconomic background examined every 6 months for 5 years. Pubic hair stage, breast stage, genital stage, testicular volume (TV), height, weight, and four skinfolds were measured.

Results

In girls, median age (25th and 75th percentiles) at thelarche (B2+) was 10.1 years (9.3–10.9). In boys, median age at attaining a TV >3 ml was 11.5 years (10.9–12.0). Median age at pubarche (PH2+) was 10.9 years (10.3–11.4) in girls and 11.6 years (10.8–12.4) in boys. Only 6.8% (4/59) of the girls and 24.6% (15/61) of the boys developed pubic hair as the first isolated sign of puberty. Serum DHEAS and Adione increased with age, although the increase in Adione was most pronounced in girls. No associations between early age at thelarche/testicular growth and increased body fat (BMI and sum of four skinfolds) were observed.

Conclusion

Danish children rarely experience pubarche as the first sign of puberty. No associations between age at pubertal onset and body composition were found. Circulating levels of Adione, but not DHEAS, increased with the onset of puberty, although with large interindividual variability.

Restricted access

Peter Christiansen

ABSTRACT

The influence of ovine follicle stimulating hormone (NIH-FSH-S-3) on ovine luteinizing hormone (NIH-LH-S-8) in the Ventral Prostate Weight method (VPW) was studied. Adding of NIH-FSH-S-3 to NIH-LH-S-8 at ratios of 1:1, 4:1 and 10:1 gave no significantly higher responses than did NIH-LH-S-8 alone.

Urinary extracts from 2 women, hypophysectomized for metastasizing mammary carcinoma and from 3 children between 2 and 5 years old (1 boy, 2 girls) gave no positive response with the doses employed (1/4 of a 24 hours urine sample total per rat). It is concluded that the Ventral Prostate Weight method in hypophysectomized rats is specific for the assay of luteinizing hormone.