Brief Reports are used for articles that convey an important, novel message and present interesting data that, however, are limited in scope and size.
This category may also be used for case reports, which present exceptional novel insights into the pathophysiology, genetics or management of endocrine disease.
Brief Reports should have no more than 1500 words (unless specified otherwise by the editors) and up to 3 tables or figures
A separate Title page with:
- Title (maximum 85 characters)
- All authors names (as they should appear on PubMed)
- Author affiliations
- Corresponding author’s postal and email address
- A short title (maximum 46 characters, including spaces)
- A minimum of four keywords describing the manuscript
- Word count of the full article (maximum length 3500 words, excluding references, figure legends, abstract, significance statement and acknowledgments).
The abstract should comprise a maximum of 150 words and provide a description of methods and findings without subheadings.
Please provide a significance statement of no more than 120 words, which conveys the main message of the paper, its novelty and its importance to the understanding and management of endocrine disease. The statement should describe your work at a level that would enable a broad audience to understand the significance of the article’s findings.
The introduction should set the study in context by briefly reviewing relevant knowledge of the subject; follow this with a concise statement of the objectives of the study.
Materials and methods
Provide sufficient information for others to repeat the study. If well-established methods are used, give a reference to the technique and provide full details of any modifications.
The results should read as a narrative leading the reader through the experiments and investigations performed. Referencing and mention of other studies is permitted in the Results section where necessary or helpful.
Should not simply re-state results, but should put them in the broader context and highlight the importance and novelty of the work in its concluding section.
Declaration of interest, Funding and Acknowledgments, Data sharing/availability statement
All references cited in the text must be included in the reference list and vice versa. However, if a reference consists of only a web address do not include it in the reference list but cite it in the text, giving the date the page was accessed.
References should be provided in numerical order as cited in the text (Vancouver style).
Tables should be concise. Tables too large for print publication should be submitted as supplementary data.
- Number tables in the order they are cited in the text
- Include a title – a single sentence at the head of the table that includes the name of the organism studied
- Use footnotes to provide any additional explanatory material, cross-referenced to the column entries
- Give a short heading for each column
- Restrict the use of abbreviations in tables and explain any abbreviation you use in the table legend
- Do not use internal horizontal or vertical lines, colour or shading
- Do not highlight p values in bold to indicate that they are significant
- Please provide exact p value numbers with up to two decimals only (unless p<0.001) (exception: genetic studies).
Supplemental methods, results, tables and figures should be submitted as a single file, wherever possible, and labelled 'Supplemental File for Review' upon submission.
Supplementary data too large for print publication or exceeding the bounds of the manuscript (e.g. videos) may be submitted separately for online publication.
Supplementary information will be reviewed as part of the manuscript, evaluated for its importance and relevance and, if accepted, will be referenced in the text of the article, directing readers to the website. All supplemental items should be cited in the text of the main manuscript.
Human subjects research
- Images taken from pathology slides
- Laparoscopic images
- Images of internal organs
- Ultrasound images
- Give the full binomial Latin names for all experimental animals other than common laboratory animals
- State the breed or strain and source of animals, and give details of age, weight, sex and housing
- Detail the procedures and anaesthetics used, including doses given
Experiments with genetically engineered mice
Human genotype–phenotype association studies
- Statistical analyses demonstrating the level of statistical significance of a finding should be published or at least available so that others can attempt to reproduce the reported results
- Explicit information should be provided about the study’s power to detect a range of effects
- The study should be epidemiologically sound, with careful accounting for potential biases in selection of subjects, characterization of phenotypes, comparability of environmental exposures (when possible) and underlying population structure in cases and controls
- Phenotypes should be assessed according to standard definitions provided in the report
- Associations should be consistent (within the range of expected statistical fluctuation) and reported for the same phenotypes across study subgroups or across similar phenotypes in the entire study group
- Significance should not depend on altering the quality control methods beyond standard approaches that could change inclusion or exclusion of large numbers of samples or loci
- Measures to assess the quality of genotype data should include results of known study sample duplicates or publicly available samples
- The results for concordance between duplicate samples (if applicable) as well as completion and call rates per SNP and per subject should be disclosed, along with rates of missing data
- A subset of notable SNPs should be evaluated with a second technology that verifies the same result with excellent concordance, because no technology is error-free
- Associations with nearby SNPs in strong linkage disequilibrium with the putatively associated SNP should be reported (and should be similar)
- The results of replication studies of previous findings should be reported even if the results are not significant
- Testing for differences in underlying population structure in case and control groups should be performed and reported
- Appropriate correction for multiple comparisons across all statistical tests examined should be reported. Comparison to genome-wide thresholds should be described. Similarly, for bayesian approaches, the choice of prior probabilities should be described
Gene and protein nomenclature
- In gene and protein symbols, substitute Greek letters with the corresponding roman letter, eg TGFBR2 not TGFβR2
- Avoid hyphens unless they are part of the approved symbol, eg IGF1 not IGF-1
- Use arabic rather than roman numerals, eg BMPR2 not BMPRII
Humans, non-human primates and domestic species
- Gene symbols should be in italics with all letters capitalised, eg SOX2
- Protein designations should be the same as the gene symbols but not italicised, eg SOX2
- Please use symbols approved by the HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee (HGNC)
Mice and rats
- Gene symbols should be in italics with only the first letter capitalised, eg Sox2
- Protein designations should be the same as the gene symbols except that all letters should be capitalised and in roman (ie not italicised), eg SOX2
- Please use symbols approved by the International Committee on Standardized Genetic Nomenclature for Mice and the Rat Genome and Nomenclature Committee, which can be queried at the MGI website
Digital image integrity
Digital image guidelines
- No specific feature within an image may be enhanced, obscured, moved, removed, or introduced
- Adjustments of brightness, contrast, or colour balance are acceptable if and as long as they do not obscure or eliminate any information present in the original. Any such adjustments should be applied to the entire image
- Threshold manipulation, expansion or contraction of signal ranges and the altering of high signals should be avoided
- The legend to a digital image should state if and what digital modifications were applied
- Band intensity should be quantified from several independent experiments. If only a "typical" experiment is shown in the figure, authors should be prepared to provide unprocessed images of gels or blots at the request of the Editor-in-Chief.
- Extensively cropped images are not acceptable. Images can be cropped to enhance clarity of presentation, but should always contain at least two markers (one with a smaller, one with a larger molecular size than the band of interest) with their molecular sizes indicated.
- Producing spliced images by combining lanes from gels or blots from different experimental runs should be avoided. A lane containing markers should be on the same gel for each run. If spliced images are presented, the vertical lanes obtained from gels or blots from different experimental runs should be clearly demarcated with lines.
- As the validity of immunoblots relies heavily on antibody specificity, an appropriate control (tissue from knockout mice or protein knockdown in cell lines) must be included, or alternatively a reference should be given in the methods section referring to such a control (Saper 2009; Burry 2011).
- The reuse of images of loading controls from other experiments or previous publications is unacceptable.
- Describe the numbers of experimental units used and the way in which they have been allocated to treatments
- Justify the omission of any observations from the analysis
- Describe methods of analysis precisely and state any necessary assumptions, as these may affect the conclusions that can be drawn from the experiment