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Junichi Ishigami, Yasuyuki Honda, Amy B Karger, Josef Coresh, Elizabeth Selvin, Pamela L Lutsey, and Kunihiro Matsushita

Objective

Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) concentration increases in response to declining kidney function to preserve normal phosphate concentrations. However, the etiological association of change in FGF23 concentration with mortality has not been examined in the general population.

Design and methods

We analyzed 5458 participants of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study who had intact FGF23 and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) assessed during midlife (visit 3, 1993–1995, mean age: 58 years) and late life (visit 5, 2011–2013, 76 years) to examine the association of FGF23 change over 18 years from mid-life to late life with the subsequent risk of mortality in late life using Cox regression models.

Results

The median 18-year change in intact FGF23 was +17.3 pg/mL. During a median follow-up of 7.2 years following visit 5, 1176 participants died. In multivariable Cox models, elevated mortality was seen in the highest quartile of FGF23 change (ΔFGF23: ≥31.3 pg/mL) (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR): 1.61 (95%CI: 1.36–1.90), or 1.37 (1.15–1.64) after additionally adjusting for eGFR change, compared with the lowest quartile (≤6.4 pg/mL)). When both FGF23 change and FGF23 in late life were simultaneously entered into the Cox model, FGF23 in late life, but not FGF23 change, was an independent predictor of mortality; however, we observed a high correlation between FGF23 change from midlife to late life and FGF23 in late life (r = 0.77).

Conclusions

Serum intact FGF23 change from midlife to late life was associated with subsequent risk of mortality independent of decline in kidney function. Our findings further support the implications of FGF23 beyond its association with kidney function.

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Chao Ling, Xiafei Hong, Mengyue Xu, Yutong Wang, Xiaosen Ma, Yunying Cui, Rui Jiang, Dingyan Cao, Huanwen Wu, Anli Tong, Yupei Zhao, and Wenming Wu

Objectives

The pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNETs) are a group of clinically heterogeneous neoplasms. Although previous studies illustrated the somatic mutation pattern for PanNETs, the germline mutation pattern is still unclear. Here, we comprehensively screened the underlying germline mutations in a cohort of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1)-related and sporadic PanNETs to reveal the characteristics of germline mutation in PanNET patients.

Methods

Patients diagnosed with PanNETs by biopsy or surgical pathology were enrolled in this study. Peripheral blood samples were used for genomic DNA purification and subsequent sequencing. The following sequencing techniques were used and compared for validation: (1) targeted gene capture with a customized panel; (2) whole exome sequencing data from previous study.

Results

A total of 184 PanNET patients were enrolled, including 20 MEN1-related and 164 sporadic cases. In this study, MEN1 mutation rate in MEN1-related PanNETs was 60% (12/20), of which 50% were novel mutation sites. For sporadic PanNETs, the overall germline mutation rate was very low. Besides the rare MEN1 mutation, previously unreported germline variant in DAXX was found in one non-functional PanNET.

Conclusions

This study revealed distinctive germline mutation rates between MEN1-related and sporadic PanNETs. The novel MEN1 mutations contribute to revealing the spectrum of MEN1 mutations in PanNETs. The newly discovered germline variant of DAXX in sporadic PanNET implies a tendency of convergence between germline and somatic mutation genes.

Open access

Rasmus Juul Kildemoes, Christian Hollensen, Beverly M K Biller, Gudmundur Johannsson, Yutaka Takahashi, and Michael Højby Rasmussen

Objective

Growth hormone (GH) replacement therapy in patients with adult growth hormone deficiency (AGHD) is individually titrated due to variable dose–responses among patients. The aim of this study was to provide clinical guidance on dosing and titration of the novel long-acting GH derivative somapacitan based on analyses of somapacitan dose–insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) responses in AGHD patients.

Design

Analyses of dosing information, 4364 somapacitan concentration samples and 4880 IGF-I samples from 330 AGHD patients treated with somapacitan in three phase 3 trials.

Methods

Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modelling was used to evaluate starting dose groups by age and oral oestrogen therapy, characterise the dose–IGF-I response in the overall AGHD population and patient subgroups, predict the IGF-I response to dose changes and simulate missed dosing.

Results

The analyses supported the clinical recommendations of higher starting doses for younger patients and women on oral oestrogen replacement therapy. For patients switching from daily GH treatment, the mean maintenance dose ratio between somapacitan (mg/week) and somatropin (mg/day) was predicted to be 8.2 (observed interquartile range of 6.7–9.1). Simulations of IGF-I SDS profiles confirmed the appropriate time for IGF-I sampling to be 3–4 days after somapacitan dosing and supported somapacitan administration with up to 3 days delay in case of missed dosing. Subgroup analyses characterised the dose–exposure–IGF-I response in patient subgroups and indicated that dose requirements are mainly influenced by sex and oral oestrogen treatment.

Conclusions

This study extends the knowledge of the somapacitan dose–IGF-I response and provides information on clinical dosing of once-weekly somapacitan in patients with AGHD.

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Cihan Atila, Odile Gaisl, Deborah R Vogt, Laura Werlen, Gabor Szinnai, and Mirjam Christ-Crain

Background

The differential diagnosis of diabetes insipidus is challenging. The most reliable approaches are copeptin measurements after hypertonic saline infusion or arginine, which is a known growth hormone secretagogue but has recently also been shown to stimulate the neurohypophysis. Similar to arginine, glucagon stimulates growth hormone release, but its effect on the neurohypophysis is poorly studied.

Design

Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial including 22 healthy participants, 10 patients with central diabetes insipidus, and 10 patients with primary polydipsia at the University Hospital Basel, Switzerland.

Methods

Each participant underwent the glucagon test (s.c. injection of 1 mg glucagon) and placebo test. The primary objective was to determine whether glucagon stimulates copeptin and to explore whether the copeptin response differentiates between diabetes insipidus and primary polydipsia. Copeptin levels were measured at baseline, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180 min after injection.

Results

In healthy participants, glucagon stimulated copeptin with a median increase of 7.56 (2.38; 28.03) pmol/L, while placebo had no effect (0.10 pmol/L (−0.70; 0.68); P < 0.001). In patients with diabetes insipidus, copeptin showed no relevant increase upon glucagon, with an increase of 0.55 (0.21; 1.65) pmol/L, whereas copeptin was stimulated in patients with primary polydipsia with an increase of 15.70 (5.99; 24.39) pmol/L. Using a copeptin cut-off level of 4.6pmol/L had a sensitivity of 100% (95% CI: 100–100) and a specificity of 90% (95% CI: 70–100) to discriminate between diabetes insipidus and primary polydipsia.

Conclusion

Glucagon stimulates the neurohypophysis, and glucagon-stimulated copeptin has the potential for a safe, novel, and precise test in the differential diagnosis of diabetes insipidus.

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Christina Blagojevic, Tracy Heung, Sarah Malecki, Shengjie Ying, Sabrina Cancelliere, Robert A Hegele, and Anne S Bassett

Objective

Mild to moderate hypertriglyceridemia is a condition often associated with obesity and diabetes, with as yet incomplete knowledge of underlying genetic architecture. The 22q11.2 microdeletion is associated with multimorbidity, including increased risk of obesity and diabetes. In this study, we sought to investigate whether the 22q11.2 microdeletion was associated with mild to moderate hypertriglyceridemia (1.7–10 mmol/L).

Design

This was a cohort study comparing 6793 population-based adults and 267 with a 22q11.2 microdeletion aged 17–69 years, excluding those with diabetes or on statins.

Methods

We used binomial logistic regression modeling to identify predictors of hypertriglyceridemia, accounting for the 22q11.2 microdeletion, male sex, BMI, ethnicity, age, and antipsychotic medications.

Results

The 22q11.2 microdeletion was a significant independent predictor of mild to moderate hypertriglyceridemia (odds ratio (OR): 2.35, 95% CI: 1.70–3.26). All other factors examined were also significant predictors (OR: 1.23–2.10), except for antipsychotic medication use. Within the 22q11.2 microdeletion subgroup, only male sex (OR: 3.10, 95% CI: 1.77–5.44) and BMI (OR: 1.63, 95% CI: 1.14–1.98) were significant predictors of hypertriglyceridemia, evident at mean age 31.2 years.

Conclusions

The 22q11.2 microdeletion is associated with hypertriglyceridemia even when accounting for other known risk factors for elevated triglycerides. This effect is seen in young adulthood (76.6% were <40 years), in the absence of diabetes, and irrespective of antipsychotics, suggesting that the 22q11.2 microdeletion may represent an unrecognized genetic risk factor for hypertriglyceridemia, providing novel opportunities for animal and cellular models. Early dyslipidemia screening and management strategies would appear prudent for individuals with 22q11.2 microdeletions.

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Jeffrey M McManus, Navin Sabharwal, Peter Bazeley, and Nima Sharifi

Context

A sex discordance in COVID exists, with males disproportionately affected. Although sex steroids may play a role in this discordance, no definitive genetic data exist to support androgen-mediated immune suppression neither for viral susceptibility nor for adrenally produced androgens.

Objective

The common adrenal-permissive missense-encoding variant HSD3B1(1245C) that enables androgen synthesis from adrenal precursors and that has been linked to suppression of inflammation in severe asthma was investigated in COVID susceptibility and outcomes reported in the UK Biobank.

Methods

The UK Biobank is a long-term study with detailed medical information and health outcomes for over 500 000 genotyped individuals. We obtained COVID test results, inpatient hospital records, and death records and tested for associations between COVID susceptibility or outcomes and HSD3B1(1245A/C) genotype. Primary analyses were performed on the UK Biobank Caucasian cohort. The outcomes were identification as a COVID case among all subjects, COVID positivity among COVID-tested subjects, and mortality among subjects identified as COVID cases.

Results

Adrenal-permissive HSD3B1(1245C) genotype was associated with identification as a COVID case (odds ratio (OR): 1.11 per C allele, 95% CI: 1.04–1.18, P  = 0.0013) and COVID-test positivity (OR: 1.09, 95% CI: 1.02–1.17, P  = 0.011) in older (≥70 years of age) women. In women identified as COVID cases, there was a positive linear relationship between age and 1245C allele frequency (P  < 0.0001). No associations were found between genotype and mortality or between genotype and circulating sex hormone levels.

Conclusion

Our study suggests that a common androgen synthesis variant regulates immune susceptibility to COVID infection in women, with increasingly strong effects as women age.

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Marja-Riitta Taskinen, Niina Matikainen, Elias Björnson, Sanni Söderlund, Mari Ainola, Antti Hakkarainen, Nina Lundbom, Carina Sihlbom, Annika Thorsell, Linda Andersson, Martin Adiels, Bolette Hartmann, Carolyn F Deacon, Jens J Holst, Chris J Packard, and Jan Borén

Objective

Incretins are known to influence lipid metabolism in the intestine when administered as pharmacologic agents. The aggregate influence of endogenous incretins on chylomicron production and clearance is less clear, particularly in light of opposing effects of co-secreted hormones. Here, we tested the hypothesis that physiological levels of incretins may impact on production or clearances rates of chylomicrons and VLDL.

Design and methods

A group of 22 overweight/obese men was studied to determine associations between plasma levels of glucagon-like peptides 1 and 2 (GLP-1 and GLP-2) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) after a fat-rich meal and the production and clearance rates of apoB48- and apoB100-containing triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. Subjects were stratified by above- and below-median incretin response (area under the curve).

Results

Stratification yielded subgroups that differed about two-fold in incretin response. There were neither differences in apoB48 production rates in chylomicrons or VLDL fractions nor in apoB100 or triglyceride kinetics in VLDL between men with above- vs below-median incretin responses. The men with above-median GLP-1 and GLP-2 responses exhibited higher postprandial plasma and chylomicron triglyceride levels, but this could not be related to altered kinetic parameters. No differences were found between incretin response subgroups and particle clearance rates.

Conclusion

We found no evidence for a regulatory effect of endogenous incretins on contemporaneous chylomicron or VLDL metabolism following a standardised fat-rich meal. The actions of incretins at pharmacological doses may not be reflected at physiological levels of these hormones.

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Wesley Jim Goedegebuure, Manouk Van der Steen, Carolina Catharina Johanna Smeets, Gerthe Femke Kerkhof, and Anita Charlotte Suzanne Hokken-Koelega

Background

Catch-up in weight-for-length in the first year of life results in more insulin resistance, an adverse lipid profile and more fat mass (FM) in 21-year-old adults born small for gestational age (SGA-CU) compared to peers born SGA without catch-up and those born appropriate for gestational age (AGA). The aim of present study was to investigate if the adverse metabolic health profile in the SGA-CU group would worsen or remain stable over the years and to determine the cardiometabolic health at 32 years between the SGA and AGA groups.

Methods

We longitudinally investigated 287 adults, 170 SGA with catch-up growth (SGA-CU) or persistent short stature (SGA-S) and 117 AGA at ages 21 and 32 years. Insulin sensitivity (Si) and β-cell function were measured by frequently sampled i.v. glucose tolerance test, body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan, and abdominal adipose tissue and liver fat fraction by MRI scan. Also, fasting serum lipid levels and blood pressure were measured.

Results

At age 32 years, SGA-CU had lower Si than AGA (P  = 0.030), while SGA-S had similar Si than AGA. FM and trunk fat were higher in SGA-CU than AGA (P  = 0.033, P  = 0.024, respectively), while SGA-S had lower lean body mass than SGA-CU and AGA (P  = 0.001 and P  < 0.001, respectively). SGA-CU had significantly higher levels of adverse lipids than AGA. Beta-cell function, visceral fat, liver fat fraction and blood pressure were similar in all groups. Metabolic health parameters in SGA-CU and SGA-S did not worsen compared to AGA during 11 years of follow-up. Gain in weight SDS from birth to age 32 years was associated with a higher risk of developing metabolic syndrome at age 32 years.

Conclusion

At age 32 years, SGA-CU adults had insulin resistance, higher FM with central adiposity and an adverse lipid profile. Postnatal catch-up growth increases the cardiometabolic risk; therefore, accelerated gain in weight should be prevented in SGA-born children.

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Dongyun Zhang, Willy Hugo, Marvin Bergsneider, Marilene B Wang, Won Kim, Harry V Vinters, and Anthony P Heaney

Objective

Provide insights into the defective POMC processing and invasive behavior in silent pituitary corticotroph tumors.

Design and methods

Single-cell RNAseq was used to compare the cellular makeup and transcriptome of silent and active corticotroph tumors.

Results

A series of transcripts related to hormone processing peptidases and genes involved in the structural organization of secretory vesicles were reduced in silent compared to active corticotroph tumors. Most relevant to their invasive behavior, silent corticotroph tumors exhibited several features of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, with increased expression of mesenchymal genes along with the loss of transcripts that regulate hormonal biogenesis and secretion. Silent corticotroph tumor vascular smooth muscle cell and pericyte stromal cell populations also exhibited plasticity in their mesenchymal features.

Conclusions

Our findings provide novel insights into the mechanisms of impaired POMC processing and invasion in silent corticotroph tumors and suggest that a common transcriptional reprogramming mechanism simultaneously impairs POMC processing and activates tumor invasion.