The treatment and care of individuals who have a difference of sex development (DSD) have been revised over the past two decades and new guidelines have been published. In order to study the impact of treatments and new forms of management in these rare and heterogeneous conditions, standardised assessment procedures across centres are needed. Diagnostic work-up and detailed genital phenotyping are crucial at first assessment. DSDs may affect general health, have associated features or lead to comorbidities which may only be observed through lifelong follow-up. The impact of medical treatments and surgical (non-) interventions warrants special attention in the context of critical review of current and future care. It is equally important to explore gender development early and refer to specialised services if needed. DSDs and the medical, psychological, cultural and familial ways of dealing with it may affect self-perception, self-esteem, and psychosexual function. Therefore, psychosocial support has become one of the cornerstones in the multidisciplinary management of DSD, but its impact remains to be assessed. Careful clinical evaluation and pooled data reporting in a global DSD registry will allow linking genetic, metabolomic, phenotypic and psychological data. For this purpose, our group of clinical experts and patient and parent representatives designed a template for structured longitudinal follow-up. In this paper, we explain the rationale behind the selection of the dataset. This tool provides guidance to professionals caring for individuals with a DSD and their families. At the same time, it collects the data needed for answering unsolved questions of patients, clinicians, and researchers. Ultimately, outcomes for defined subgroups of rare DSD conditions should be studied through large collaborative endeavours using a common protocol.
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Christa Flück, Anna Nordenström, S Faisal Ahmed, Salma R Ali, Marta Berra, Joanne Hall, Birgit Köhler, Vickie Pasterski, Ralitsa Robeva, Katinka Schweizer, Alexander Springer, Puck Westerveld, Olaf Hiort, Martine Cools and the COST Action BM1303 Working Group
F P Paranhos-Neto, L Vieira Neto, M Madeira, A B Moraes, L M C Mendonça, I C B Lima, C L R Chagas, D A Lira, J F Spitz, J A M Guimarães, M E L Duarte and M L F Farias
The role of vitamin D on bone microarchitecture and fragility is not clear.
To investigate whether vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D <20 ng/mL) increases cortical bone loss and the severity of fractures.
Cross-sectional study of 287 elderly women with at least one prevalent low-impact fracture.
Biochemistry, X-rays to identify vertebral fractures (VFs) and to confirm non-vertebral fractures (NonVFs), and high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) to evaluate bone microstructure.
Serum 25(OH)D levels were associated with body mass index (BMI: r = −0.161, P = 0.006), PTH (r = −0.165; P = 0.005), CTX (r = −0.119; P = 0.043) and vBMD at cortical bone (Dcomp: r = 0.132; P = 0.033) and entire bone (D100: r = 0.162 P = 0.009) at the distal radius, but not at the tibia. Age and PTH levels were potential confounding variables, but in the multiple linear regressions only BMI (95% CI: 0.11–4.16; P < 0.01), 25(OH)D (95% CI: −0.007 to 1.70; P = 0.05) and CTX (95% CI: −149.04 to 21.80; P < 0.01) predicted Dcomp, while BMI (95% CI: 1.13–4.18; P < 0.01) and 25(OH)D (95% CI: 0.24–1.52; P < 0.01) predicted D100. NonVFs predominated in patients with 25(OH)D <20 ng/mL (P = 0.013). Logistic regression analysis showed a decrease in the likelihood of presenting grade 2–3 VFs/NonVFs for every increase in 25(OH)D (OR = 0.962, 95% CI: 0.940–0.984; P = 0.001), BMI (OR = 0.932, 95% CI: 0.885–0.981; P = 0.007) and D100 at radius (OR = 0.994, 95% CI: 0.990–0.998; P = 0.005).
In elderly patients with prevalent fractures, vitamin D deficiency was associated with cortical bone loss and severity of fractures.
Terry J Smith and Luigi Bartalena
In this article, the two authors present their opposing points of view concerning the likelihood that glucocorticoids will be replaced by newly developed biological agents in the treatment of active, moderate-to-severe thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO). TAO is a vexing, disfiguring and potentially blinding autoimmune manifestation of thyroid autoimmunity. One author expresses the opinion that steroids are nonspecific, frequently fail to improve the disease and can cause sometimes serious side effects. He suggests that glucocorticoids should be replaced as soon as possible by more specific and safer drugs, once they become available. The most promising of these are biological agents. The other author argues that glucocorticoids are proven effective and are unlikely to be replaced by biologicals. He reasons that while they may not uniformly result in optimal benefit, they have been proven effective in many reports. He remains open minded about alternative therapies such as biologicals but remains skeptical that they will replace steroids as the first-line therapy for active, moderate-to-severe TAO without head-to-head comparative clinical trials demonstrating superiority. Despite these very different points of view, both authors are optimistic about the availability of improved medical therapies for TAO, either as single agents or in combination. Further, both agree that better treatment options are needed to improve the care of our patients with active moderate-to-severe TAO.
J E Lake, P Debroy, D Ng, K M Erlandson, L A Kingsley, F J Palella Jr, M J Budoff, W S Post and T T Brown
Adipose tissue (AT) density measurement may provide information about AT quality among people living with HIV. We assessed AT density and evaluated relationships between AT density and immunometabolic biomarker concentrations in men with HIV.
Cross-sectional analysis of men enrolled in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study.
Abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) density (Hounsfield units, HU; less negative = more dense) were quantified from computed tomography (CT) scans. Multivariate linear regression models described relationships between abdominal AT density and circulating biomarker concentrations.
HIV+ men had denser SAT (−95 vs −98 HU HIV−, P < 0.001), whereas VAT density was equivalent by HIV serostatus men (382 HIV−, 462 HIV+). Historical thymidine analog nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (tNRTI) use was associated with denser SAT but not VAT. In adjusted models, a 1 s.d. greater SAT or VAT density was associated with higher levels of adiponectin, leptin, HOMA-IR and triglyceride:HDL cholesterol ratio and lower hs-CRP concentrations in HIV− men. Conversely, in HIV+ men, each s.d. greater SAT density was not associated with metabolic parameter improvements and was significantly (P < 0.05) associated with higher systemic inflammation. Trends toward higher inflammatory biomarker concentrations per 1 s.d. greater VAT density were also observed among HIV+ men.
Among men living with HIV, greater SAT density was associated with greater systemic inflammation independent of SAT area. AT density measurement provides additional insight into AT density beyond measurement of AT quantity alone, and may have implications for metabolic disease risk.
David J Torpy
A study has examined the rates of adrenal crises in patients treated with pituitary or adrenal surgery. Rates were substantial (approximately 9 per 100 patient years), perhaps representing suppression of corticotrope ACTH secretion and deprivation of normal corticotrope number postoperatively. Hormone withdrawal syndrome may have contributed to the rates of apparent adrenal crises given the definition used. Higher rates were seen in patients given relatively high dose glucocorticoids postoperatively in one of the two centres where patients were treated – perhaps some of the patients in the high dose centre had longer periods of corticotrope suppression from exogenous glucocorticoids, increasing the risk period for adrenal crises. The question of optimal glucocorticoid dose and weaning rate after cure of Cushing’s syndrome remains a balance between weaning at a rate sufficiently rapid to allow resumption of normal corticotrope function thereby preventing adrenal crises and providing sufficient glucocorticoid support to avoid hormone withdrawal syndrome or even precipitating an adrenal crisis, in the vulnerable 4–6 month period after successful surgery. There is likely to be considerable inter-individual variability in optimum glucocorticoid dose and weaning rate so that close clinical and biochemical monitoring is currently a practical approach.
Hershel Raff, Eric P Cohen and James W Findling
The diagnosis of endogenous hypercortisolism (Cushing's syndrome) is extremely challenging. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) increases the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis making the diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome even more challenging. This is particularly so since urine free cortisol (UFC) testing is not useful in CKD. The case report by Stroud et al. in this issue of the European Journal of Endocrinology highlights this problem by finding normal UFC in a patient with pituitary ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome. Elevated late-night salivary cortisol (LNSC) testing was diagnostic and pituitary adenomectomy was curative. LNSC measurement is the diagnostic test of choice in patients with suspected Cushing's syndrome, particularly in the presence of CKD..
Anna Stroud, John Zhang and Ann McCormack
The diagnosis of Cushing’s disease (CD) is particularly challenging in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) due to abnormalities of the hypothalamo–pituitary–adrenal axis associated with the latter. This case report presents discrepant biochemical findings in a patient with CKD who was subsequently diagnosed with CD, and outlines principles which may guide the definitive diagnosis of CD in this context.
The case of a patient with Stage 4 CKD who underwent transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary-dependent CD is presented. A literature review was conducted to identify similar cases and characterise features of hypothalamo–pituitary–adrenal axis dysfunction in CKD.
The patient discussed herein presented with markedly elevated plasma adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) due to a pituitary macroadenoma, with normal 24-h urine free cortisol (24-UFC) but abnormal overnight dexamethasone suppression testing and elevated midnight salivary cortisol. He experienced biochemical remission after undergoing transsphenoidal adenomectomy. A literature review revealed that CKD can be associated with elevated serum cortisol, reduced UFC and elevated plasma ACTH. Only four other cases of CD being diagnosed in a patient with CKD have been published. The loss of a circadian rhythm of cortisol secretion was the most common feature among all cases.
To establish a definitive diagnosis of CD in the context of pre-existing CKD, the absence of circadian rhythms of cortisol and ACTH is a more sensitive indicator than 24-UFC and low-dose dexamethasone suppression testing.
Emilia Sbardella, Carlotta Pozza, Andrea M Isidori and Ashley B Grossman
The transition age is the period between childhood to adulthood; it refers to a broad set of physical, cognitive and sociocultural modifications, arbitrarily defined as starting in late puberty and ending with full adult maturation. Pituitary disorders in adolescence represent a challenge that requires careful management during the transition to adult care.
Given the complexity of care of pituitary disorders in the transition age, we have reviewed the relevant medical literature focusing on aetiology, clinical manifestations, treatment strategies of GH deficiency (GHD), hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism (HH) in male and female adolescents, central hypothyroidism (CH), central adrenal insufficiency (CAI) and cranial diabetes insipidus (CDI) at this time. The objective of the present review is to provide an up-to-date evaluation of the transition period to evaluate the specific needs of adolescents with chronic pituitary disease in order to optimise their management.
We provide an overview of current clinical management of GHD, HH, CH, CAI and CDI in the transition age.
Specific changes occur in pituitary function during the transition period. A holistic approach including discussion of patients’ concerns and emotional support should constitute a key component of managing pituitary disorders in adolescence. Special transition clinics where paediatric and adult endocrinologists work together, should be increasingly created and strengthened to bridge care, to promote continuity and adherence to treatment and to limit potential negative development, metabolic, skeletal and cardiovascular sequelae of discontinuity of care among adolescents with pituitary disorders.
Massimo Bongiovanni, William C Faquin, Luca Giovanella, Cosimo Durante, Peter Kopp and Pierpaolo Trimboli
The second version of The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology endorsed the introduction of non-invasive follicular thyroid neoplasms with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP) as a distinct entity with low malignant potential into clinical practice. Consequently, the risk of malignancy (ROM) of cytological diagnoses has changed, but the magnitude of the change remains uncertain. The present systematic review was undertaken to obtain more robust information about the true impact of NIFTP on the ROM among patients undergoing surgery following a fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) diagnosis of suspicious for malignancy (Bethesda V) or malignant (Bethesda VI). As they are managed surgically, these two diagnostic categories are the primary entities that are clinically impacted by the advent of NIFTP.
Systematic review and meta-analysis.
A comprehensive literature search of online databases was performed in November 2018. The search was conducted looking for data of histologically proven NIFTP with preoperative FNAC.
One-hundred fifty-seven articles were identified and nine were included in the study. Overall, there were 13,752 thyroidectomies with a cancer prevalence of 45.7%. When NIFTP was considered non-malignant, the pooled risk difference for ROM was 5.5%. Applying meta-analysis, the pooled prevalence of NIFTP among nodules with FNAC of Bethesda V or Bethesda VI was 14 and 3%, respectively.
This meta-analysis shows that the inclusion of NIFTP leads to a reduction in the ROM for the Bethesda V and Bethesda VI FNAC diagnostic categories by 14 and 3%, respectively. Clinicians should be aware of these data to avoid overtreatment.
Luca Giovanella and Leonidas H Duntas
The use of recombinant human thyrotropin (rhTSH) testing in the diagnosis and therapy of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) has been adopted over the last two decades as an alternative to the classical thyroid hormone withdrawal avoiding the threat of hypothyroidism. Serum thyroglobulin (Tg) measurement is crucial for monitoring DTC patients over time. Until about a decade ago, optimal sensitivity of Tg assays for the detection of smaller disease foci required Tg measurement after thyrotropin (TSH) stimulation, carried out following thyroid hormone withdrawal or rhTSH administration. In very recent years, significant improvements in assay technology have resulted in highly sensitive Tg (hsTg) assays, sufficiently sensitive to obviate the need for rhTSH stimulation in most DTC patients. The aim of this paper is to review and discuss, via a ‘pros and cons’ approach, the current clinical role of rhTSH to stimulate radioiodine (RAI) uptake for treatment and/or imaging purposes and to increase the clinical sensitivity of Tg measurement for monitoring DTC patients when high-sensitive Tg assays are available.