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Open access

Mikiko Okazaki-Hada, Eijun Nishihara, Mako Hisakado, Takumi Kudo, Mitsuru Ito, Shuji Fukata, Mitsushige Nishikawa, Takashi Akamizu, and Akira Miyauchi

Objective

Resistance to thyroid hormone beta (RTHβ) is an inherited syndrome caused by mutations in the thyroid hormone receptor β (THRB) gene. Patients with RTHβ typically have elevated thyroid hormone levels with non-suppressed serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). We aimed to elucidate the clinical, laboratory, and imaging findings of RTHβ patients and further to explore their association with THRB gene mutations.

Design and methods

We retrospectively reviewed the clinical charts and compared the clinical findings of 68 RTHβ patients (45 probands and 23 relatives) and 30 unaffected relatives in Kuma Hospital.

Results

Genetic testing revealed 35 heterozygous THRB gene mutations. Among all RTHβ patients, autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) was detected in 42.1% of men and 40.9% of women, showing that the prevalence of AITD in affected males was significantly higher than in unaffected relatives (P  = 0.019). During the follow-up of 44 patients, 13 patients (29.5%; 8 (42.1%) with AITD and 5 (20%) without AITD) temporarily showed thyroid function test results inconsistent with RTHβ. Two patients with the R383H mutation, which has little dominant-negative effect, temporarily showed normal thyroid hormone and TSH levels without AITD.

Conclusions

The frequency of AITD in male RTHβ patients was significantly higher compared to unaffected relatives. More than 20% of RTHβ patients temporarily showed laboratory findings atypical of RTHβ during their follow-up, and patients with AITD and specific THRB mutations were prone to display such findings. Therefore, genetic testing should be performed even for patients with fluctuations in thyroid function test results to avoid misdiagnosis and inappropriate treatment.

Open access

Dilek Cicek, Nick Warr, Gozde Yesil, Hatice Kocak Eker, Firdevs Bas, Sukran Poyrazoglu, Feyza Darendeliler, Gul Direk, Nihal Hatipoglu, Mehmet Eltan, Zehra Yavas Abali, Busra Gurpinar Tosun, Sare Betul Kaygusuz, Tuba Seven Menevse, Didem Helvacioglu, Serap Turan, Abdullah Bereket, Richard Reeves, Michelle Simon, Matthew Mackenzie, Lydia Teboul, Andy Greenfield, and Tulay Guran

Context

Homozygous and heterozygous variants in PPP2R3C are associated with syndromic 46,XY complete gonadal dysgenesis (Myo-Ectodermo-Gonadal Dysgenesis (MEGD) syndrome), and impaired spermatogenesis, respectively. This study expands the role of PPP2R3C in the aetiology of gonadal dysgenesis (GD).

Method

We sequenced the PPP2R3C gene in four new patients from three unrelated families. The clinical, laboratory, and molecular characteristics were investigated. We have also determined the requirement for Ppp2r3c in mice (C57BL6/N) using CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing.

Results

A homozygous c.578T>C (p.L193S) PPP2R3C variant was identified in one 46,XX girl with primary gonadal insufficiency, two girls with 46,XY complete GD, and one undervirilised boy with 46,XY partial GD. The patients with complete GD had low gonadal and adrenal androgens, low anti-Müllerian hormone, and high follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone concentrations. All patients manifested characteristic features of MEGD syndrome. Heterozygous Ppp2r3c knockout mice appeared overtly normal and fertile. Inspection of homozygous embryos at 14.5, 9.5, and 8.5 days post coitum(dpc) revealed evidence of dead embryos. We conclude that loss of function of Ppp2r3c is not compatible with viability in mice and results in embryonic death from 7.5 dpc or earlier.

Conclusion

Our data indicate the essential roles for PPP2R3C in mouse and human development. Germline homozygous variants in human PPP2R3C are associated with distinctive syndromic GD of varying severity in both 46,XY and 46,XX individuals.

Restricted access

Khyatisha Seejore, Marilena Giannoudi, Djoah Osborn, Julie M Lynch, Ahmed Al-Qaissi, Elaine Dunwoodie, Jane Hook, Maria Marples, and Robert D Murray

Context

The use of the CTLA4 inhibitor, ipilimumab, has proven efficacious in the treatment of melanoma, renal carcinoma and non-small cell lung cancer; however, it is associated with frequent immune-related adverse events (irAE). Ipilimumab-induced hypophysitis (IIH) is a well-recognised and not infrequent endocrine irAE.

Objective

To investigate the timing of onset and severity of adrenal and thyroid hormone dysfunction around the development of IIH in patients treated for melanoma.

Design

Aretrospective review of hormone levels in consecutive adult patients treated with ipilimumab (3 mg/kg) for advanced melanoma as monotherapy or in combination with a PD-1 inhibitor.

Results

Of 189 patients, 24 (13%; 13 males; 60.5 ± 12.2 years) presented with IIH at a median of 16.1 (range: 6.7–160) weeks after commencing treatment, occurring in 14 (58%) after the fourth infusion. At the presentation of IIH, corticotroph deficiency was characterised by an acute and severe decrease in cortisol levels to ≤83 nmol/L (≤3 μg/dL) in all patients, often only days after a previously recorded normal cortisol level. Free thyroxine (fT4) levels were observed to decline from 12 weeks prior to the onset of cortisol insufficiency, with the recovery of thyroid hormone levels by 12 weeks after the presentation of IIH. A median fall in fT4 level of 20% was observed at a median of 3 weeks (IQR: 1.5–6 weeks) prior to the diagnosis of IIH.

Conclusion

IIH is characterised by an acute severe decline in cortisol levels to ≤83 nmol/L at presentation. A fall in fT4 can herald the development of ACTH deficiency and can be a valuable early indicator of IIH.

Open access

Alessandro Prete, Richard J Auchus, and Richard J Ross

Background

Patients with 21-hydroxylase deficiency congenital adrenal hyperplasia (21OHD-CAH) have poor health outcomes with increased mortality, short stature, impaired fertility, and increased cardiovascular risk factors such as obesity. To address this, there are therapies in development that target the clinical goal of treatment, which is to control excess androgens with an adrenal replacement dose of glucocorticoid.

Methods

Narrative review of publications on recent clinical developments in the pharmacotherapy of congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

Summary

Therapies in clinical development target different levels of the hypothalamo–pituitary–adrenal axis. Two corticotrophin-releasing factor type 1 (CRF1) receptor antagonists, Crinecerfont and Tildacerfont, have been trialled in poorly controlled 21OHD-CAH patients, and both reduced ACTH and androgen biomarkers while patients were on stable glucocorticoid replacement. Improvements in glucocorticoid replacement include replacing the circadian rhythm of cortisol that has been trialled with continuous s.c. infusion of hydrocortisone and Chronocort, a delayed-release hydrocortisone formulation. Chronocort optimally controlled 21OHD-CAH in 80% of patients on an adrenal replacement dose of hydrocortisone, which was associated with patient-reported benefits including restoration of menses and pregnancies. Adrenal-targeted therapies include the steroidogenesis-blocking drug Abiraterone acetate, which reduced adrenal androgen biomarkers in poorly controlled patients.

Conclusions

CRF1 receptor antagonists hold promise to avoid excess glucocorticoid replacement in patients not controlled on standard or circadian glucocorticoid replacement such as Chronocort. Gene and cell therapies are the only therapeutic approaches that could potentially correct both cortisol deficiency and androgen excess.

Restricted access

Laura Potasso, Julie Refardt, Christian Meier, and Mirjam Christ-Crain

Objective

Hyponatremia is associated with an increased risk of bone fragility and fractures. Many studies suggest that hyponatremia stimulates osteoclast activation, whereas other studies rather reveal a possible role of acute hyponatremia in impairing osteoblast function. We aimed to assess whether and how correction of hyponatremia in hospitalized patients with the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis (SIAD) has an impact on bone metabolism.

Design and Methods

This was a predefined secondary analysis of 88 hospitalized patients with SIAD undergoing a randomized treatment with SGLT-2 inhibitors or placebo for 4 days. Biochemical markers of bone resorption (CTX) and bone formation (PINP) were collected in serum at baseline and after the intervention (day 5). Bone formation index (defined as PINP/CTX) and its difference between day 5 and baseline were calculated. Patients with steroid therapy (n = 6), fractures (n = 10), or whose data were missing (n = 4) were excluded from the analysis.

Results

Out of 68 patients, 27 (39.7%) were normonatremic at day 5. These patients showed an increase in serum PINP (P = 0.04), whereas persistent hyponatremic patients did not (P = 0.38), with a relevant difference between these two subgroups (P = 0.005). Serum CTX increased similarly in the two groups (P = 0.43). This produced a 47.9 points higher PINP/CTX difference between discharge and admission in normonatremic patients (95% CI: 17.0–78.7, P = 0.003) compared to patients with persistent hyponatremia, independent of age, sex, BMI, smoking habits, randomization arm, and baseline cortisol levels.

Conclusions

Our predefined post hoc analysis shows that correction of hyponatremia in hospitalized patients with SIAD might have a positive impact on osteoblast function.

Open access

Yongze Li, Zhongyan Shan, and Weiping Teng

Objective

Longitudinal studies have investigated the effects of changing iodine status on thyroid disorders, but the effect of a transition from more than adequate iodine to adequate iodine on national changes in prevalence adjusted for changing risk factors remains unclear.

Design

Two repeat nationwide surveys were conducted from 2009–2010 to 2015–2017 to assess changes in thyroid disorder prevalence and iodine status in China.

Methods

A multistage stratified random sampling method was used to obtain a nationally representative sample of urban adults aged 18 and older in mainland China in 2009 (n = 14 925) and 2015 (n = 12 553). Changes in thyroid disorder prevalence, urinary iodine concentration (UIC), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels were assessed. Logistic regression models were used to examine changes in prevalence over time.

Results

The median UIC decreased significantly from 219.7 to 175.9 μg/L (P < 0.0001). The weighted prevalence of overt hyperthyroidism, subclinical hyperthyroidism, Graves’ disease, and goitre decreased between 2009 and 2015 in the overall population (P < 0.05 for all). Despite no significant changes in subclinical hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism or anti-thyroid peroxidase or anti-thyroglobulin antibody positivity prevalence, a significant increase in thyroid nodule prevalence (P < 0.0001) was found in the overall population. The 2.5th TSH percentile increased by 0.15 mIU/L (95% CI: 0.01 to 0.30 mIU/L, P = 0.04) from 2009 to 2015.

Conclusions

With the iodine status transition from more than adequate to adequate, thyroid disorder (except for thyroid nodules) prevalence remained stable or even decreased after adjusting for confounding factors among adults in mainland China between 2009 and 2015. Additional studies are needed to explore the reasons for the increased thyroid nodule prevalence.

Restricted access

Amanda Sampaio Mangolim, Leonardo de Andrade Rodrigues Brito, and Vania dos Santos Nunes-Nogueira

Objective

This systematic review evaluated the effect of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) in men with obesity having low testosterone levels (LTLs).

Design and methods

Search strategies were performed in MEDLINE, Embase, LILACS, and CENTRAL databases. Two reviewers selected the studies, assessed the risk of bias, and extracted data from the included studies. A random-effects model was used to pool results across studies, and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation was used to evaluate the certainty of evidence.

Results

A total of 16 randomized controlled trials were included. With moderate certainty of the evidence, no difference was found between TRT and placebo regarding total adverse events, TRT led to a 2-kg lean body mass gain and slightly improved low-density lipoprotein (LDL), without effects on the blood pressure. Due to imprecision/heterogeneity, effects in cardiovascular events (relative risk: 0.52, 95% CI: 0.26 to 1.05, 7 trials, 583 participants), high-density lipoprotein, hematocrit, prostate-specific antigen, HbA1c, and quality of life were unclear. TRT was effective for waist circumference and BMI; however, large between-study heterogeneity was found, with 95% prediction intervals crossing the null effect line. Meta-regression revealed that the average age of participants was a significant modifier for both outcomes.

Conclusion

TRT slightly improved the lean body mass and LDL in men with obesity having LTLs but did not affect the blood pressure. The effects of TRT on cardiovascular events, HbA1c, and quality of life are unclear. The mean age of participants significantly modified the effect of TRT on weight loss.

Restricted access

Nicholas Russell, Rudolf Hoermann, Ada S Cheung, Jeffrey D Zajac, David J Handelsman, and Mathis Grossmann

Objective

Indirect evidence suggests that the effects of testosterone on fat mass in men are dependent on aromatization to estradiol (E2). However, no controlled study has assessed the effects of E2 in the absence of testosterone.

Design

Six-month randomized, placebo-controlled trial with the hypothesis that men randomized to E2 would reduce their fat mass.

Methods

Seventy-eight participants receiving androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer were randomized to 0.9 mg of 0.1% E2 gel per day, or matched placebo. Dual x-ray absorptiometry body composition was measured at baseline, month 3, and month 6. The primary outcome was total fat mass.

Results

Serum E2 increased in the estradiol group over 6 months compared to placebo, and mean-adjusted difference (MAD) was 207 pmol/L (95% CI: 123–292), P  < 0.001. E2 treatment changed total fat mass, MAD 1007 g (95% CI: 124–1891), but not significantly, so P = 0.09. There were other consistent non-significant trends toward increased proportional fat mass, MAD 0.8% (95% CI: 0.0–1.6), P= 0.15; gynoid fat, MAD 147 g (95% CI: 2–293), P = 0.08; visceral fat, 53 g (95% CI: 1–105) P = 0.13; and subcutaneous fat, MAD 65 g (95% CI: 5–125), P = 0.11. Android fat increased, MAD 164 g (95% CI: 41–286), P = 0.04.

Conclusion

Contrary to our hypothesis, we provide suggestive evidence that E2 acting in the absence of testosterone, may increase total and regional fat mass in men. Given the premature closure of clinical trials due to the COVID pandemic, this potentially important observation should encourage additional studies to confirm or refute whether E2 promotes fat expansion in the absence of testosterone.

Free access

Andreas Ebbehoj, Per Løgstrup Poulsen, and Esben Søndergaard