Genetic aetiology remains unknown in up to 50% of patients with persistent hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia (HH). Several syndromes are associated with HH. We report Rubinstein–Taybi syndrome (RSTS) as one of the possible causes of persistent HH. Early diagnosis and treatment of HH is crucial to prevent hypoglycaemic brain injury.
Four RSTS patients with HH were retrospectively analysed.
Genetic investigations included next-generation sequencing-based gene panels and exome sequencing. Clinical characteristics, metabolic profile during hypoglycaemia and treatment were reviewed.
Disease-related EP300 or CREBBP variants were found in all patients, no pathogenic variants were found in a panel of genes associated with non-syndromic HH. Two patients had classic manifestations of RSTS, three had choanal atresia or stenosis. Diagnosis of HH varied from 1 day to 18 months of age. One patient was unresponsive to treatment with diazoxide, octreotide and nifedipine, but responded to sirolimus. All required gastrostomy feeding.
Given the rarity of RSTS (1:125 000) and HH (1:50 000), our observations indicate an association between these two conditions. We therefore recommend that clinicians should be vigilant in screening for HH in symptomatic infants with RSTS. In children with an apparent syndromic form of HH, RSTS should be considered in the differential diagnosis.