The use of combined hormonal contraceptives (CHCs) worsens glucose tolerance, but the risk for glucose metabolism disorders remains controversial.
The study is a prospective longitudinal population-based cohort study.
The study was based on a cohort population that comprised 1879 women born in 1966. At age 46, the women answered a questionnaire on contraceptive use and underwent an oral glucose tolerance test. Glucose metabolism indices were evaluated in current CHC (n=153), progestin-only contraceptive (POC, n=842), and non-hormonal contraceptive users (n=884).
In the entire study population, current CHC use was significantly associated with prediabetes (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.3-3.2) and type 2 diabetes (OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.1-9.7) compared to non-hormonal contraceptive use. After five years of use, the prediabetes risk increased 2.2-fold (95% CI 1.3-3.7) and type 2 diabetes risk increased 4.5-fold (95% CI 1.5-13.5). Compared with the current POC use, current CHC use was significantly associated with prediabetes (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.2-3.0). Current POC use was not associated with any glucose metabolism disorders. The results prevailed after adjusting for body mass index and socioeconomic status.
CHC use in perimenopausal women was associated with a significantly increased risk of glucose metabolism disorders. This association should be considered in women with increased metabolic risk.