This review aims to cover the subject of sex steroid action in adolescence. It will include situations with too little sex steroid action, as seen in e.g Turners syndrome and androgen insensitivity issues, too much sex steroid action as seen in adolescent PCOS, CAH and gynecomastia, too late sex steroid action as seen in constitutional delay of growth and puberty and too early sex steroid action as seen in precocious puberty.
This review will cover the etiology, the signs and symptoms which the clinician should be attentive to, important differential diagnoses to know and be able to distinguish, long-term health and social consequences of these hormonal disorders and the course of action with regards to medical treatment in the pediatric endocrinological department and for the general practitioner.
This review also covers situations with exogenous sex steroid application for therapeutic purposes in the adolescent and young adult. This includes gender-affirming therapy in the transgender child and hormone treatment of tall statured children. It gives some background information of the cause of treatment, the patient’s motivation for medicating (or self-medicating), long-term consequences of exogenous sex steroid treatment and clinical outcome of this treatment.