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J C Naafs, P H Verkerk, E Fliers, A S P van Trotsenburg, and N Zwaveling-Soonawala

Objective

To evaluate clinical characteristics of patients with central congenital hypothyroidism (CH), detected in the Dutch neonatal screening program. This included patients with isolated central CH but the majority have multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies (MPHD).

Design

Nationwide, cross-sectional study.

Methods

Data was collected on clinical characteristics, endocrine tests and neuroimaging of central CH patients, detected by the Dutch neonatal screening and born between 1 January 1995 and 1 January 2015. Height and pubertal status were assessed during a study visit. Isolated central CH patients without a confirmed genetic diagnosis were offered genetic (re-)testing.

Results

During the 20-year period 154 central CH patients were detected (incidence of permanent central CH 1:25 642). After excluding deceased (15), severe syndromic (7) and transient patients (6), 92 of 126 eligible patients were included (57 MPHD; 79% male). Sixty-one patients (50 MPHD) had been hospitalized before screening results were reported, but central CH was diagnosed on clinical grounds in only three of them (5%). MRI abnormalities consistent with pituitary stalk interruption syndrome were seen in 50 (93%) MPHD patients. Among isolated central CH patients, 27 (84%) had an IGSF1, TBL1X or IRS4 gene variant (53, 16 and 16%, respectively).

Conclusion

Many patients with central CH have neonatal health problems, especially MPHD patients. Despite hospital admission of two-thirds of patients, almost none were diagnosed clinically, but only after the notification of an abnormal screening result was received. This indicates that central CH, especially if isolated, is an easily missed clinical diagnosis.

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Giulia Gava, Ilaria Mancini, Stefania Alvisi, Renato Seracchioli, and Maria Cristina Meriggiola

Objective

The impact of different combinations of long-term gender-affirming hormone therapy (GAHT) in transwomen (TW) is largely unknown. To assess the effects of 5-year administration of cyproterone acetate (CPA) or leuprolide acetate (Leu) plus transdermal or oral estradiol (E).

Design

Cohort study based on prospectively collected data. Fifty TW received 50 mg CPA daily orally (n = 25; CPA+E group) or 3.75 mg Leu i.m. monthly (n = 25; Leu+E group) with 1 or 2 mg E daily for 5 years. Reproductive hormones, biochemical and anthropometric parameters, body composition and bone mineral density (BMD) were assessed.

Results

LH, FSH and total testosterone levels were similarly and significantly suppressed in both groups. Prolactin increased only in the CPA+E group (P = 0.002). Fasting insulin resistance and glucose progressively increased in the CPA+E group only (treatment × time effect P = 0.002 and P = 0.043, respectively). Total cholesterol increased more in the Leu+E group than in the CPA+E group and HDL-cholesterol decreased in the CPA+E group (time × treatment interaction effect, P = 0.007). Lumbar and total body BMD increased in both groups after 3 years. No serious adverse events were recorded.

Conclusions

Both regimens were effective in suppression of T production. CPA+E worsened the metabolic profile with a slight increase in PRL levels. All subjects presented an increase in BMD regardless of treatment. These preliminary data could have clinical implications in the choice of GAHT, in particular for those TW not requiring gender-affirming surgery.

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Maria-Elina Mosorin, Annina Haverinen, Meri-Maija Ollila, Tanja Nordström, Jari Jokelainen, Sirkka Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, Katri Puukka, Aimo Ruokonen, Juha Auvinen, Terhi Piltonen, Laure Morin-Papunen, and Juha S Tapanainen

Objective

The use of combined hormonal contraceptives (CHCs) worsens glucose tolerance, but the risk for glucose metabolism disorders remains controversial.

Design

The study is a prospective longitudinal population-based cohort study.

Methods

The study was based on a cohort population that comprised 1879 women born in 1966. At age 46, the women answered a questionnaire on contraceptive use and underwent an oral glucose tolerance test. Glucose metabolism indices were evaluated in current CHC (n = 153), progestin-only contraceptive (POC, n = 842), and non-hormonal contraceptive users (n = 884).

Results

In the entire study population, current CHC use was significantly associated with prediabetes (OR: 2.0, 95% CI: 1.3–3.2) and type 2 diabetes (OR: 3.3, 95% CI: 1.1–9.7) compared to non-hormonal contraceptive use. After 5 years of use, the prediabetes risk increased 2.2-fold (95% CI: 1.3–3.7) and type 2 diabetes risk increased 4.5-fold (95% CI: 1.5–13.5). Compared with the current POC use, current CHC use was significantly associated with prediabetes (OR: 1.9, 95% CI: 1.2–3.0). Current POC use was not associated with any glucose metabolism disorders. The results prevailed after adjusting for BMI and socioeconomic status.

Conclusions

CHC use in perimenopausal women was associated with a significantly increased risk of glucose metabolism disorders. This association should be considered in women with increased metabolic risk.

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Agnieszka Łebek-Szatańska, Karolina M Nowak, and Lucyna Papierska

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F Albarel, I Pellegrini, H Rahabi, C Baccou, L Gonin, C Rochette, M Vermalle, T Cuny, F Castinetti, and T Brue

Introduction

The low prevalence of pituitary diseases makes patient autonomy crucial, and self-management programs should be more common.

Objectives

To assess the efficacy of an education program for patients with pituitary diseases in terms of patients’ quality of life, satisfaction and goal attainment.

Design and methods

Adult patients with pituitary disorders were recruited in a tertiary referral center and chose at least three of eight possible sessions on various topics, from disease management to psychosocial issues. Patients were included if they attended at least three sessions between 2012 and 2016 and completed the initial, final, and follow-up questionnaires. Data on quality of life (SF36), satisfaction and goal attainment were analyzed.

Results

Fifty-three patients were included (33 women; mean age, 53.5 years). There were a significant quality of life improvements in terms of physical and psychic limitation scores at the final assessment that persisted at follow-up evaluation. Most patients reached their objectives, especially those on sharing experiences and improving autonomy and self-confidence. More than half set new objectives at the end of the program, the most popular one being to reinforce their knowledge of their pituitary disease, its evolution and treatment (17.1% of patients). The mean overall satisfaction score was 3.75/4. At follow-up evaluation, patients reported improved self-management of pituitary disease (3.6/5) and improved self-efficacy (3.8/5).

Conclusion

Individualizing the educational objectives of patients with pituitary disease improves the way they live with their disease. If confirmed in other cohorts, this approach could become the gold standard for education programs in rare endocrine diseases.

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Minna Soinio, Anna-Kaarina Luukkonen, Marko Seppänen, Jukka Kemppainen, Janne Seppänen, Juha-Pekka Pienimäki, Helena Leijon, Tiina Vesterinen, Johanna Arola, Eila Lantto, Semi Helin, Ilkka Tikkanen, Saara Metso, Tuomas Mirtti, Ilkka Heiskanen, Leena Norvio, Mirja Tiikkainen, Tuula Tikkanen, Timo Sane, Matti Välimäki, Celso E Gomez-Sanchez, Ilkka Pörsti, Pirjo Nuutila, Pasi I Nevalainen, and Niina Matikainen

Objective

Endocrine Society guidelines recommend adrenal venous sampling (AVS) in primary aldosteronism (PA) if adrenalectomy is considered. We tested whether functional imaging of adrenal cortex with 11C-metomidate (11C-MTO) could offer a noninvasive alternative to AVS in the subtype classification of PA.

Design

We prospectively recruited 58 patients with confirmed PA who were eligible for adrenal surgery.

Methods

Subjects underwent AVS and 11C-MTO-PET without dexamethasone pretreatment in random order. The lateralization of 11C-MTO-PET and adrenal CT were compared with AVS in all subjects and in a prespecified adrenalectomy subgroup in which the diagnosis was confirmed with immunohistochemical staining for CYP11B2.

Results

In the whole study population, the concordance of AVS and 11C-MTO-PET was 51% and did not differ from that of AVS and adrenal CT (53%). The concordance of AVS and 11C-MTO-PET was 55% in unilateral and 44% in bilateral PA. In receiver operating characteristics analysis, the maximum standardized uptake value ratio of 1.16 in 11C-MTO-PET had an AUC of 0.507 (P = n.s.) to predict allocation to adrenalectomy or medical therapy with sensitivity of 55% and specificity of 44%. In the prespecified adrenalectomy subgroup, AVS and 11C-MTO-PET were concordant in 10 of 19 subjects with CYP11B2-positive adenoma and in 6 of 10 with CYP11B2-positivity without an adenoma.

Conclusions

The concordance of 11C-MTO-PET with AVS was clinically suboptimal, and did not outperform adrenal CT. In a subgroup with CYP11B2-positive adenoma, 11C-MTO-PET identified 53% of cases. 11C-MTO-PET appeared to be inferior to AVS for subtype classification of PA.

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Teruo Jojima, Takahiko Kogai, Toshie Iijima, Kanako Kato, Masaaki Sagara, Atsumi Kezuka, Masato Kase, Shintaro Sakurai, Kazumi Akimoto, Junko Sakumoto, Takashi Namatame, Keisuke Ueki, Akira Hishinuma, Takao Kamai, Isao Usui, and Yoshimasa Aso

A monoallelic germline alteration of ARMC5 causes primary bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (PBMAH) with Cushing’s syndrome via its subsequent somatic alteration on the other allele as the second hit. PBMAH is sometimes complicated with meningioma. Dependency of such a multi-organ disease on the second hit mechanism was reported before, but this finding has not been confirmed yet. We describe a case of a 65-year-old female with PBMAH, carrying a heterozygous germline alteration of ARMC5, p.R267*, complicated with meningioma associated with somatic loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of the unaffected allele. Pathogenic alterations of ARMC5 may also contribute to the development of meningioma by the two-hit mechanism.

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Gloria Hoi-Yee Li, Ching-Lung Cheung, Shuang-Xia Zhao, Huai-dong Song, and Annie Wai-Chee Kung

Objective

Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP) is a rare and potentially fatal complication of hyperthyroidism. By meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies, we aim to discover novel susceptibility loci and understand the pathogenesis of TPP.

Methods

This meta-analysis comprised 319 TPP cases and 3516 healthy controls from three independent cohorts (two from Hong Kong; one from Shanghai). Genetic variants in each cohort were separately genotyped, imputed and analyzed for association with TPP. Fixed-effect meta-analysis was performed to combine the data. Using the three independent genome-wide significant variants, a weighted genetic risk score (GRS) was developed.

Results

Of 7 077 246 variants tested for association with TPP, 260 variants reached genome-wide significance and were represented by independent variants from four distinct genomic loci, but a risk locus for Graves’ disease at 6p21.33–p21.22 was excluded from subsequent analyses. Two novel loci near TRIM2 (4q31.3; rs6827197: OR = 4.075; P = 3.46 × 10−9) and AC140912.1 (16q22.3; rs6420387: OR = 1.861; P = 2.66 × 10−8) were identified. Together with previously reported KCNJ2 (17q24.3; rs312743: OR = 2.564; P = 1.15 × 10−21), the three susceptibility variants explained 4.36% of the genetic liability. Expression quantitative trait loci analyses showed the variants altered expression of TRIM2 in nerve and KCNJ2 in skeletal muscle. The weighted GRS had an area under curve of 0.827 and 0.682 in the derivation and validation cohorts in Hong Kong.

Conclusions

We identified two novel TPP risk loci near TRIM2 and AC140912.1. While rare mutations in TRIM2 and KCNJ2 were implicated in monogenic disorders characterized by muscle paralysis, our study suggested common variants near these genes might dysregulate gene expression and lead to milder phenotypes.

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Kyriakie Sarafoglou, Mutaz M Jaber, Mahmoud Al-Kofahi, and Richard C Brundage

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Bruno Lapauw and Jean-Marc Kaufman

Overt hypogonadism in men adversely affects body composition and metabolic health, which generally improve upon testosterone (TS) therapy. As obese men often display lower serum TS levels, in particular when they present with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) or type 2 diabetes (T2DM), there have been claims that androgen therapy prevents or reverses obesity and improves metabolic health. This has contributed to the increase in TS prescriptions during the past two decades. In this narrative review, based on findings from larger observational studies and randomized controlled intervention trials, we evaluate whether low TS predicts or predisposes to obesity and its metabolic consequences, and whether obese men with low TS are truly hypogonadal. We further describe the mechanisms underlying the bi-directional relationships of TS levels with obesity and metabolic health, and finally assess the evidence for TS therapy in men with obesity, MetS and/or T2DM, considering efficacy, safety concerns and possible alternative approaches. It is concluded that low serum sex hormone-binding globulin and total TS levels are highly prevalent in obese men, but that only those with low free TS levels and signs or symptoms of hypogonadism should be considered androgen deficient. These alterations are reversible upon weight loss. Whether low TS is a biomarker rather than a true risk factor for metabolic disturbances remains unclear. Considering the limited number of sound TS therapy trials have shown beneficial effects, the modest amplitude of these effects, and unresolved safety issues, one cannot in the present state-of-the-art advocate TS therapy to prevent or reverse obesity-associated metabolic disturbances. Instead, the focus should remain on lifestyle measures and management of obesity-related consequences.