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Aoife Garrahy, Martín Cuesta, Brian Murphy, William Tormey, Michael W O'Reilly, Mark Sherlock, and Chris J Thompson


Severe hyponatraemia (plasma sodium concentration, pNa <120 mmol/L) is reported to be associated with mortality as high as 50%. Although there are several international guidelines for the management of severe hyponatraemia, there are few data on the impact of treatment.

Design and Methods:

We have longitudinally reviewed rates of specialist input, treatment outcomes and mortality rates in patients with severe hyponatraemia (pNa <120 mmol/L) in 2005, 2010 and 2015, and compared the recent mortality rate with that of patients admitted with pNa 120-125 mmol/L.


Between 2005 and 2010 there was a doubling in the rate of specialist referral (32% to 68%, p=0.003) and an increase in the use of active management of patients with pNa <120 mmol/L (63% to 88%, p=0.02), associated with a reduction in mortality from 51% to 15% (p=0<0.001). The improved rates of intervention were maintained between 2010 and 2015, but there was no further reduction in mortality. When data from all three reviews were pooled, specialist consultation in patients with pNa <120 mmol/L was associated with 91% reduction in mortality risk, RR 0.09 (95% CI 0.03-0.26), p<0.001. Log-rank testing on in-hospital survival in 2015 found no significant difference between patients with pNa <120 mmol/l and pNa 120-125 mmol/L (p=0.56).


Dedicated specialist management of severe hyponatraemia is associated with a reduction in mortality, to rates comparable with moderate hyponatraemia.

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Marie-Josée Desrochers, Matthieu St-Jean, Nada El Ghorayeb, Isabelle Bourdeau, Benny So, Éric Therasse, Gregory Kline, and André Lacroix


Unilateral aldosteronomas should suppress renin and contralateral aldosterone secretion. Complete aldosterone suppression in contralateral adrenal vein sample (AVS) could predict surgical outcomes.


To retrospectively evaluate the prevalence of basal contralateral suppression using Aldosterone (A)contralateral(CL)/Aperipheral(P) as compared to (A/Cortisol(C)CL)/(A/C)P ratio in primary aldosteronism (PA) patients studied in two Canadian centers. To determine the best cut-off to predict clinical and biochemical surgical cure. To compare the accuracy of ACL/AP to the basal and post-ACTH lateralization index (LI) in predicting surgical cure.


In total, 330 patients with PA and successful AVS were included; 124 lateralizing patients underwent surgery. Clinical and biochemical cure at 3 and 12 months were evaluated using the PASO criteria.


Using ACL/AP and (A/C)CL/(A/C)P at the cut-off of 1, the prevalence of contralateral suppression was 6 and 45%, respectively. Using ROC curves, the ACL/AP ratio is associated with clinical cure at 3 and 12 months and biochemical cure at 12 months. (A/C)CL/(A/C)P is associated with biochemical cure only. The cut-offs for ACL/AP offering the best sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) for clinical and biochemical cures at 12 months are 2.15 (Se: 63% and Sp: 71%) and 6.15 (Se: 84% and Sp: 77%), respectively. Basal LI and post-ACTH LI are associated with clinical cure but only the post-ACTH LI is associated with biochemical cure.


In lateralized PA, basal contralateral suppression defined by ACL/AP is rare and incomplete compared to the (A/C)CL/(A/C)P ratio and is associated with clinical and biochemical postoperative outcome, but with modest accuracy.

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Giorgio Radetti, Antonio Fanolla, Fiorenzo Lupi, Alessandro Sartorio, and Graziano Grugni

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Mette Hansen Viuff, Kirstine Stochholm, Angela Lin, Agnethe Berglund, Svend Juul, and Claus Højbjerg Gravholt

Objective: Although the overall risk of cancer is not increased in Turner syndrome, the pattern of cancer occurrence differs from the general population. We aim to describe the cancer morbidity pattern in Turner syndrome and evaluate the effect of long-term hormone replacement therapy (HRT).

Design: Nationwide epidemiological study.

Methods: 1,156 females with Turner syndrome diagnosed during 1960-2014, were linked with data from the Danish National Patient Registry. Statistics Denmark randomly identified 115,578 female controls. Stratified Cox regression was used to analyze cancer morbidity, mortality and effect of HRT.

Results: Overall risk of cancer was not elevated (Hazard ratio 1.04 (95%CI 0.80-1.36)). The risk of skin cancer and benign skin neoplasms was two-fold increased, while the risk of breast cancer was decreased (Hazard ratio 0.4 (0.2-0.9)). Turner syndrome (45,X) had a two- to five-fold increased risk of benign central nervous system tumors, colon and rectal cancers, benign skin neoplasms and skin cancer. Turner syndrome women with a 45,X/46,XX karyotype had increased risk of tongue cancer. HRT had no impact on the risk of any cancer investigated in this study.

Conclusions: The lack of one X chromosome might play a role in skin neoplasms, central nervous system tumors, colon and rectal cancers. The risk of breast cancer is lower than in the general population. Long-term HRT during the premenopausal age range seem not to exert a cancerous effect in Turner syndrome. Increased vigilance concerning specific types of cancer in Tuner syndrome harboring a 45,X karyotype is needed.

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Fatemeh Majidi, Samuela Martino, Mustafa Kondakci, Christina Antke, Matthias Haase, Vasileios Chortis, Wiebke Arlt, Cristina L Ronchi, Martin Fassnacht, Claire Laurent, Jean-Michel Petit, Olivier Casasnovas, Amir Mouhammed Habra, Aleem Kanji, Roberto Salvatori, An Thi Nhat Ho, Ariadni Spyroglou, Felix Beuschlein, Diego Villa, Wasithep Limvorapitak, Björn Engelbrekt Wahlin, Oliver Gimm, Martina Rudelius, Matthias Schott, Ulrich Germing, Rainer Haas, and Norbert Gattermann


We sought to refine the clinical picture of primary adrenal lymphoma (PAL), a rare lymphoid malignancy with predominant adrenal manifestation and risk of adrenal insufficiency.


Ninety-seven patients from 14 centers in Europe, Canada and the United States were included in this retrospective analysis between 1994 and 2017.


Of the 81 patients with imaging data, 19 (23%) had isolated adrenal involvement (iPAL), while 62 (77%) had additional extra-adrenal involvement (PAL+). Among patients who had both CT and PET scans, 18FDG-PET revealed extra-adrenal involvement not detected by CT scan in 9/18 cases (50%). The most common clinical manifestations were B symptoms (55%), fatigue (45%), and abdominal pain (35%). Endocrinological assessment was often inadequate. With a median follow-up of 41.6 months, 3-year progression-free (PFS) and overall (OS) survival rates in the entire cohort were 35.5% and 39.4%, respectively. The hazard ratios of iPAL for PFS and OS were 40.1 (95% CI: 2.63–613.7, P = 0.008) and 2.69 (95% CI: 0.61–11.89, P = 0.191), respectively. PFS was much shorter in iPAL vs PAL+ (median 4 months vs not reached, P = 0.006), and OS also appeared to be shorter (median 16 months vs not reached), but the difference did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.16). Isolated PAL was more frequent in females (OR = 3.81; P = 0.01) and less frequently associated with B symptoms (OR = 0.159; P = 0.004).


We found unexpected heterogeneity in the clinical spectrum of PAL. Further studies are needed to clarify whether clinical distinction between iPAL and PAL+ is corroborated by differences in molecular biology.

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A B Hansen, D Wøjdemann, C H Renault, At Pedersen, K M Main, L L Raket, Rikke Beck Jensen, and A Juul

This review aims to cover the subject of sex steroid action in adolescence. It will include situations with too little sex steroid action, as seen in e.g Turners syndrome and androgen insensitivity issues, too much sex steroid action as seen in adolescent PCOS, CAH and gynecomastia, too late sex steroid action as seen in constitutional delay of growth and puberty and too early sex steroid action as seen in precocious puberty.

This review will cover the etiology, the signs and symptoms which the clinician should be attentive to, important differential diagnoses to know and be able to distinguish, long-term health and social consequences of these hormonal disorders and the course of action with regards to medical treatment in the pediatric endocrinological department and for the general practitioner.

This review also covers situations with exogenous sex steroid application for therapeutic purposes in the adolescent and young adult. This includes gender-affirming therapy in the transgender child and hormone treatment of tall statured children. It gives some background information of the cause of treatment, the patient’s motivation for medicating (or self-medicating), long-term consequences of exogenous sex steroid treatment and clinical outcome of this treatment.

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Kara L Marlatt, Dragana Lovre, Robbie A Beyl, Chandra R Tate, Evelyn K Hayes, Charles F Burant, Eric Ravussin, and Franck Mauvais-Jarvis


Combining conjugated estrogens (CE) with the selective estrogen receptor modulator bazedoxifene (BZA) is a novel, orally administered menopausal therapy. We investigated the effect of CE/BZA on insulin sensitivity, energy metabolism, and serum metabolome in postmenopausal women with obesity.


Randomized, double-blind, crossover pilot trial with washout was conducted at Pennington Biomedical Research Center. Eight postmenopausal women (age 50–60 years, BMI 30–40 kg/m2) were randomized to 8 weeks CE/BZA or placebo. Primary outcome was insulin sensitivity (hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp). Secondary outcomes included body composition (DXA); resting metabolic rate (RMR); substrate oxidation (indirect calorimetry); ectopic lipids (1H-MRS); fat cell size, adipose and skeletal muscle gene expression (biopsies); serum inflammatory markers; and serum metabolome (LC/MS).


CE/BZA treatment produced no detectable effect on insulin sensitivity, body composition, ectopic fat, fat cell size, or substrate oxidation, but resulted in a non-significant increase in RMR (basal: P = 0.06; high-dose clamp: P = 0.08) compared to placebo. CE/BZA increased serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol. CE/BZA also increased serum diacylglycerol (DAG) and triacylglycerol (TAG) species containing long-chain saturated, mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids (FAs) and decreased long-chain acylcarnitines, possibly reflecting increased hepatic de novo FA synthesis and esterification into TAGs for export into very low-density lipoproteins, as well as decreased FA oxidation, respectively (P < 0.05). CE/BZA increased serum phosphatidylcholines, phosphatidylethanolamines, ceramides, and sphingomyelins, possibly reflecting the increase in serum lipoproteins (P < 0.05).


A short treatment of obese postmenopausal women with CE/BZA does not alter insulin action or ectopic fat but increases serum markers of hepatic de novo lipogenesis and TAG production.

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Pantea Nazeri, Mamak Shariat, and Fereidoun Azizi


Objective: The current systematic review aimed to provide comprehensive data on the effects of iodine supplementation in pregnancy and investigate its potential benefits on infant growth parameters and neurocognitive development using meta-analysis.

Methods: A systematic review was conducted on trials published from January 1989 to December 2019 by searching MEDLINE, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, Scopus, and Google Scholar. For most maternal and neonatal outcomes, a narrative synthesis of the data was performed. For birth anthropometric measurements and infant neurocognitive outcomes, the pooled standardized mean differences (SMDs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using fixed/random effect models.

Results: Fourteen trials were eligible for inclusion in the systematic review, of which five trials were included in the meta-analysis. Although the findings of different thyroid parameters are inconclusive, more consistent evidence showed that iodine supplementation could prevent the increase in thyroglobulin concentration during pregnancy. In the meta-analysis, no differences were found in weight (-0.11 [95% CI -0.23–0.01]), length (-0.06 [95% CI -0.21–0.09]), and head circumference (0.26 [95% CI -0.35–0.88]) at birth, or in cognitive (0.07 [95% CI -0.07–0.20]), language (0.06 [95% CI -0.22–0.35]), and motor (0.07 [95% CI -0.06–0.21]) development during the first two years of life in infants between the iodine-supplemented and control groups.

Conclusion: Iodine supplementation during pregnancy can improve the iodine status in pregnant women and their offspring; however, according to our meta-analysis, there was no evidence of improved growth or neurodevelopmental outcomes in infants of iodine-supplemented mothers.

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Magalie Haissaguerre, Marie Puerto, Marie-Laure Nunes, and Antoine Tabarin

Open access

Davide Calebiro

G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the largest family of membrane receptors and major drug targets. They play a fundamental role in the endocrine system, where they mediate the effects of several hormones and neurotransmitters. As a result, alterations of GPCR signalling are a major cause of endocrine disorders such as congenital hypothyroidism or Cushing’s syndrome. My group develops innovative optical methods such as fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and single-molecule microscopy, which allow us to investigate GPCR signalling in living cells with unprecedented spatiotemporal resolution. Using this innovative approach, we have contributed to elucidate some long debated questions about the mechanisms of GPCR signalling and their involvement in human disease. Among other findings, these studies have led to the unexpected discovery that GPCRs are not only signalling at the cell surface, as previously assumed, but also at various intracellular sites. This has important implications to understand how hormones and neurotransmitters produce specific responses in our cells and might pave the way to innovative treatments for common diseases like diabetes or heart failure.